1．kingdom n． 王国
2．nation n． 民族，国家
3．geography n． 地理
4．landmark n． 地标性建筑
5．symbol n． 象征
6．defend v． 保护，保卫
7．gain v． 得到，获得
8．ancient adj. 古老的
9．traditional adj. 传统的
10．coastal adj. 沿海的
11．historic adj. 历史上著名的
12．boundary n． 分界线，边界
13．canal n． 运河；管道
14．ceremony n． 典礼，仪式，礼节，礼仪
15．coast n． 海岸，海滨
1．at one time一度，曾经
2．be located/situated in/lie in位于……
3．be surrounded by被……所环绕
4．be made up of由……组成
5．be famous/well－known for以……闻名
6．have a population of有……人口
7．be separated from把……分离
8．give way to让位于；给……让路
9．go to pieces崩溃，瓦解；身体垮台
10．in advance of在……的前面；超过
11．in the course of在……期间，在……过程中
12．places of interest名胜
13．in the long run从长远来看，最后
14．under the leadership of在……领导/关心下
15．behind the times落在时代后面
1．The UK lies in the northwest of Europe and is seperated from the Europe Continent by English Channel.
2．There are a lot of attractions in the UK，whose beauty is really beyond description.
3．Its capital city London is the largest and most international city of Europe，and its transportation is very convenient.
ENJOY A RELAXING STUDY BREAK IN
LANGUAGE CENTRE AND COLLEGE OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER
Dear Sir or Madam，
I'm Li Hua，a student from China.I expect to go to Britain for an English course this summer.I have read your ad and would like to know more about the six－week course.
First，please tell me when the course will start so that I can make preparations in advance.Second，how many students are there in a class？I believe class size will matter most.Third，how many class hours do we have during a week? I hope we can have free time to go sightseeing after class.Fourth，I wonder how much you charge us for the course.Finally，which type of accommodation do you offer，a host family or a school dormitory?
I'd appreciate your response as soon as possible.
①wedding n. 婚礼，结婚
③sightseeing n. 游览， 观光
⑤fold vt.折叠；对折→ unfold vt.打开；拆开
⑥arrange v. 安排， 布置 arrangement n．安排， 布置
⑦unite vi.& vt.联合；团结 →united adj.团结的；联合的→ union n．联合；联盟；结合；协会
⑧convenience n．便利；方便 →convenient adj.方便的
⑨rough adj.粗糙的；粗暴的→ roughly adv.粗略地；粗糙地
⑩attract vt.吸引；引起注意→ attraction n．吸引；吸引力 attractive adj.有吸引力的
⑪delight n．快乐；喜悦 vt.使高兴；使欣喜→ delighted adj.高兴的；快乐的
①fax n. 传真
②plus prep.加， 加上
③uniform n. 制服
④port n. 港口， 码头
⑦province n. 省
⑩tense adj. 心烦意乱的，紧张的
⑫statue n．雕像，塑像 vt.用雕像装饰
⑭institution n．(慈善、宗教等性质的)公共机构； 学校
⑮royal adj. 皇家的，王室的，国王的，女王的
⑱possibility n．可能(性)possible adj.可能的；合理的
⑲arrange vt.筹备；安排；整理arrangement n．布置；整理
⑳description n．描写；描述describe vt.描述；形容；描绘
consist vi.组成，一致 consistent adj.一致的
currency n．货币；现金→ current adj当前的；通用的；流通的；流行的
available adj.可利用的；有用的→availability n．有效性；可利用
thrill vt.使激动；使胆战心惊→ thrilling adj.令人激动的→ thrilled adj.激动的；兴奋的
architecture n．建筑学， 建筑设计， 风格→ architect n．建筑师； 设计师
enjoyable adj.令人愉快的；使人高兴的→enjoy v．欣赏；喜爱→enjoyment n．乐趣；享乐
furnished adj.配备好装备的；带家具的→furnish vt.装备；(用家具等)布置(房间、公寓)；提供
exhibit n．展览，陈列；vt.呈现；陈列；vi.展出 exhibition n．展览；展出；展览品(会)
1．Several firms were united (unite)to form one company.
2．Professor Li was very delighted (delight)with the results.
3．I have to find a convenient (convenience)location for the shelves.
4．Historical buildings are both attractive (attract)and important to the majority of people.
5．Since everything has been arranged (arrange)well，the party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.
6．The results are consistent (consist)with the earlier research.
7．It is thought that the scenery of the West Lake is beautiful beyond description (describe)．
8．Another possibility (possible)is that we will go to Mexico instead.
9．Thank you for writing and allowing me to clarify (clarify)the present position.
10．He likes collecting stamps and now he has a large collection(collect)of various stamps.
①delight n．快乐，高兴 vt.使高兴，使欣喜；delighted adj.喜欢的，高兴的；delightful adj.令人高兴的
③joy n．欢乐，高兴；joyful adj.快乐的，高兴的
②break away(from) 挣脱(束缚)；脱离
④break down (机器)损坏；破坏
⑤consist of 由……组成
①to one's credit为……带来荣誉；值得赞扬；在……名下
②to one's delight/joy 使某人高兴的是
③to one's surprise 使某人惊奇的是
①in memory of 为了纪念
②in favour of 支持……
③in need of 需要……
④in support of 支持…
take the place of 代替
1．Our class is divided into two groups during the discussion.
2．The committee consists of ten members.
3．It is much to her credit that Mary continued to work in spite of all the difficulties.
4．The town was named after Mr.Smith，in memory of his great contributions to its development.
5．This word is wrongly spelt.You have left out a letter.
6．Computers have taken the place of human beings in many fields so far.
7．The TV broke down again，which made me very unhappy.
8．Taiwan is never allowed to break away from the mainland anyway.It is known to all that it belongs to China.
①blow away 吹走
②break away 摆脱
③carry away 拿走，使入迷
④die away 逐渐消失，减弱
⑤give away 背弃，赠送
⑥put away 收起来，存起来
⑦wash away 冲走
⑧take away 拿走
⑨throw away 扔掉
⑩turn away 把……打发走
①to one's astonishment/surprise 令某人惊奇的是
②to one's disappointment 令某人失望的是
③to one's regret 使某人感到遗憾的是
④to one's shame 使某人惭愧的是
1.You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.
We must keep the river clean in order to make the fish in it swim freely and happily.
2.Worried about the time available，Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.
Lost in the forest，we had to remain where we were，waiting for help.
3.It looked splendid when first built!
When first introduced to the market，these products enjoyed great success.
4.It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.
It seemed strange that...“……似乎有点儿奇怪”，should have done此处表示对过去发生的事情感到惊讶。
It seemed strange that he should have rejected the practical suggestion put forward by us.
Sightseeing in the United Kingdom
After the wedding，my cousin and his wife went to the United Kingdom for nationwide sightseeing.He faxed a letter to me in English yesterday.1.To my delight，he no longer made any tense error.And his 2.description(describe) roughly clarified my questions about the UK—its currency，its administration，the institution 3.which divides it into four provinces，and the historical 4.conflicts (conflict) and quarrels when Southern Ireland broke away from the UK.
5Unwilling(will) to leave out any attraction，my cousin arranged his enjoyable journey carefully.One attractive place he visited was a castle in 6.the countryside of Scotland，which lies near a port.It used to be the headquarters of the Communism Union but broke down 7.during the war.Finding nothing could take the place of this 8.splendid(splendidly) architecture，people accomplished rebuilding it in 1952.9.It was to their credit that all furnished rooms are consistent with what they used to be.My cousin 10.was thrilled(thrill) by its collections consisting of statues plus royal uniforms folded in glass tanks.Though there was no possibility to buy some of these exhibits，it was convenient to take photos，which he sent me along with his fax.
Notes：Southern Ireland /'sʌðən 'aɪələnd/ n．南爱尔兰 headquarter/'hedkwɔ：tə/ n．指挥部；司令部；总部；总店
(教材原句)England is the largest of the four countries，and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones.
at one's convenience在某人方便的时候
for the convenience of...为了方便……
(2)if it is convenient(to/for you)如果(你)方便的话
It is convenient for sb.to do sth.某人方便做某事
(2)convenient作表语用时，主语不能是人，常用于It is convenient for sb.to do sth.句型。
(1)If it is convenient for you，can we have the lesson in my house on Sunday morning or Sunday evening?
It's a great convenience (convenient) to live here.At my convenience，I can visit some of my favorite museums.Shopping is convenient to/for my wife.It is convenient for my son to go to school，for his school is only two blocks away.If Sunday is convenient (convenience) to/for you，be sure to come to get together.
The most convenient parking is off Church Street.近处的；近便的
(2018·北京卷)The convenience(convenient) even leads fewer people to take public transport—an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing (叫车) services.
(教材原句)It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors.很遗憾，这些建于19世纪的工业城市对游客并没有吸引力。
(1)attract one's attention/mind吸引某人的注意力
be attracted by被……所吸引
attract sb.to sth.吸引某人关注某事
(2)have an/no/a little/much attraction for sb.对某人具有/没有/有一点/很有吸引力
(3)be attractive to对……有吸引力
(1)Seeing something attractive(attract) seems to cause happy thinking.看到吸引人的某种东西会产生幸福的想法。
The scenery is so attractive (attract)that it attracts (attract) many tourists' attention every year，and it will keep on holding much attraction (attract) for more travellers.
He was attracted by the beauty and he didn't want to leave right now.(用过去分词短语作状语改写)
Attracted by the beauty，he didn't want to leave right now.
(教材原句)So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him.于是，我们安排这名球员和被认为行贿的人一起接受采访。
(1)arrange sth.for sb.为某人安排某事
arrange to do sth.安排做某事；约定做某事
arrange with sb.to do sth.与某人约定做某事
arrange for sb.to do sth.安排某人做某事
(2)make arrangements/an arrangement for...为……做安排
(1)表示“安排某人做某事”用arrange for sb.to do sth.而不用arrange sb.to do sth.。
(2)make arrangements(for sth./for sb.to do sth.)中的arrangement常用复数形式。
(1)You can't sit around and wait for others to arrange(arrange) your life；if you want something，fight for it yourself.
Now everything for the conference to be held tomorrow ①has been arranged(已准备就绪)．I have ②arranged for Tom to pick up(安排Tom开车去接)the experts at the airport.Then I'm to ③arrange to meet (安排接见)Mr Wang.In a word，all ④the arrangements we made(我们做出的安排)are completed.
①Since everything has been arranged well，the party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.
②Everything (having been) arranged well，the party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.
(教材原句)Her first delight was going to the Tower.It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.
take/find/have delight in(doing)sth.以(做)……为乐
It is a delight to do sth.做某事是一件令人愉快的事
(2)delight sb.with sth.用某物取悦某人
(1)Bedtime stories are one of the delights of early childhood.睡前故事是儿时的一大乐趣。
Much to my delight，my son delights(delight)in learning English.He is delighted(delight)to listen to English songs and sing after the tape again and again.Yesterday he came home with delight and delighted (delight)me with the good news that he won the first place in an English competition.
(教材原句)How many countries does the UK consist of?
(1)consist of＝be made up of由……组成；由……构成
consist in＝lie in存在于；在于
be consistent with和……一致/相符
consist of一般不用于被动语态和进行时，其同义短语有：be made up of，be composed of。
(1)Success does not consist in never making mistakes but in never making the same one a second time.
(2)Life consists of not only sunshine but also hard times.
(3)The true wealth does not consist/lie in what we have，but in what we are.
Life mainly consists(consist) of happiness and sorrow while happiness and sorrow consist in struggle.Remember that your ideal life does not always consist with the reality.生活主要是由快乐和悲伤组成的，而快乐和悲伤存在于拼搏之中。记住，理想的生活并不总是和现实相一致。
①The company，which consists of three small factories，declared bankruptcy yesterday because of the serious financial crisis.(定语从句)
②The company，consisting of three small factories，declared bankruptcy yesterday because of the serious financial crisis.(分词作状语)
(2018·天津卷)Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting(consist)of heat detectors，smoke detectors and sprinklers.For your safety，never tamper with(胡乱摆弄)these systems.
(教材原句)On my way to the station my car broke down.
break into pieces成为碎片
①The elevator broke down and we had to walk up to the tenth floor.出故障
②The car broke down on the way to the airport.抛锚
③The old man's health broke down after a serious illness.(身体)垮掉
④His plan broke down when it was put into practice.失败
⑤Plastic bags are difficult to break down.分解
①I hear that Jim and Mary are breaking up.
②Last night somebody broke into Mr White's house and took away a lot of things.
③Warm applause broke out after his speech.
④The soldiers broke through the enemy's defence works.
⑤The school has broken up for the holidays.
⑥Dad would occasionally break in with a suggestion.
(2018·北京卷)Federica Bertocchini，co-author of the study，says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food-beeswax—also allows them to break down plastic.
leave out 省去；遗漏；不考虑
(教材原句)Which country is left out?
leave behind 留下；忘带；遗留
leave for 动身去
leave off 停止；中断
leave over 留下，剩下，延后，推迟
leave sb.doing 让某人一直处于某种状态
(2)be/feel left out 被冷落；觉得被忽视(冷落)
be left over 剩下；残留
①You've left out the most important word in this sentence.遗漏
②You can leave out the details, just give us the main facts.省去
③Don't leave me out，please！I want to go there，too.不考虑
①She left out a piece of important detail in her report due to insufficient preparation.
②Because I was in a great hurry，I left my coat behind in the bus.
③The newly married couple are leaving for their honeymoon.
④I went on with my story just where I had left off.
It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.
在It＋be/seems＋strange(necessary，important，natural，a pity，a shame...)that...句型中，that所引导的主语从句的谓语动词常用“should＋动词原形”这种虚拟语气形式，should可以省略。
(1)It is true that we may suffer from failure from time to time.However，it is important that we (should)not lose the enthusiasm to keep on trying.
①It is recommended that the plan (should)be delayed(delay)because of bad weather.
②It is strange that he (should)have done (do)such silly things.
③It's a great pity that the famous singer (should)take (take)drugs.
It seems that the matter is more complex.(改为简单句)
→The matter seems to be more complex.
1．It is not necessary for parents to arrange (安排)everything for their children.
2．It is thought that the scenery of the West Lake is beautiful beyond description (描述)．
3．Before starting the new service，the company carried out a nationwide (全国范围的)opinion poll.
4．We spent the days sightseeing (观光)and the evenings sitting in the bars drinking the local wine.
5．He was unwilling(不乐意)to face the fact that he had failed the exam.
6．If two people or groups are in conflict(冲突)，they have had a serious disagreement or argument and have not yet reached an agreement.
7．Difficult though the task was，they managed to accomplish (完成)it in time.
8．To clarify (澄清)something means to make it easier to understand，usually by explaining it in more details.
1．My husband arranged me to ride in a hot air balloon for my birthday.arranged后加for
2．To his delighting，he got the first place in the maths exam.delighting→delight
3．Rainbow Valley is great tourist attraction，drawing many visitors every year.is后加a
4．Please come and see me for your convenience.for→at
5．This population consists birds，bats，frogs，snakes，etc.consists后加of
6．The library is divided of different zones.of→into
7．It is strange that he knows so much about me.knows→(should)know
8．The old man has been fired and now a young man takes place.take后加his
If you study British history，you may find the country went 1.through several different names.The first name England referred to England and Wales,2.but when the two countries joined Scotland in the seventeenth century，the name Great Britain 3.was given (give)to represent the country.4.With the joining of Northern Ireland，the country got the name the United Kingdom,5.which was shown to the world in a new flag 6.called (call) the Union Jack.
Of 7.the four countries，England is the 8.largest (large) and is divided into three zones：the South，the North and the Midlands.9.Its capital London，which has been influenced by some invaders，like the Romans，the Vikings，the Anglo－Saxons and the Normans，is the greatest 10.historical (history) treasure of all with its museums，art collections，theatres，parks and buildings.
Worry about the time available，Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.Her first delightful was going to the Tower.It built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.Therefore，the building had expanded around it.It is remained part of a royal palace and prison combined.To my great surprise，Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers，that still wore the four－hundred－year－old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth Ⅰ on special occasions.She finishes the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace，the Queen's house in London.Oh，she had so many to tell her friends!
about the time available，Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.Her first was going to the Tower.It built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.，the had expanded around it.It is remained part of a royal palace and prison combined.To great surprise，Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers， still wore the four－hundred－year－old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth Ⅰ on special occasions.She the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace，the Queen's house in London.Oh，she had so to tell her friends!
The full name of the UK is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland，which consists of four countries—England，Wales，Scotland and Northern Ireland.Among them England is the largest one.The UK lies in the northwest of Europe and is separated from the Europe Continent by the English Channel.There are a lot of attractions in the UK，whose beauty is really beyond description.Its capital city London is the largest and most international city of Europe，and its transportation is very convenient.