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2020高考英语大一轮精讲练人教版讲义:5.2

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[话题单词]

1kingdom n 王国

2nation n 民族国家

3geography n 地理

4landmark n 地标性建筑

5symbol n 象征

6defend v 保护保卫

7gain v 得到获得

8ancient adj. 古老的

9traditional adj. 传统的

10coastal adj. 沿海的

11historic adj. 历史上著名的

12boundary n 分界线边界

13canal n 运河管道

14ceremony n 典礼仪式礼节礼仪

15coast n 海岸海滨

[话题短语]

1at one time一度曾经

2be located/situated in/lie in位于……

3be surrounded by……所环绕

4be made up of……组成

5be famous/wellknown for……闻名

6have a population of……人口

7be separated from……分离

8give way to让位于……让路

9go to pieces崩溃瓦解身体垮台

10in advance of……的前面超过

11in the course of……期间……过程中

12places of interest名胜

13in the long run从长远来看最后

14under the leadership of……领导/关心下

15behind the times落在时代后面

[话题佳句]

1The UK lies in the northwest of Europe and is seperated from the Europe Continent by English Channel.

英国位于欧洲西北部英吉利海峡把它与欧洲大陆分开

2There are a lot of attractions in the UKwhose beauty is really beyond description.

英国有许多旅游胜地其美景难以用语言描述

3Its capital city London is the largest and most international city of Europeand its transportation is very convenient.

首都伦敦是欧洲最大和最具国际特色的城市交通很便利

[佳作背诵]

假定你是李华计划暑假期间去英国学习英语为期六周下面的广告引起了你的注意请给该校写封信询问有关情况(箭头所指内容)

ENJOY A RELAXING STUDY BREAK IN

BEAUTIFUL LANCASTER

LANGUAGE CENTRE AND COLLEGE OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF LANCASTER

languages·English·French·Spanish

Arts·Politics·Sociology·History

★★★

★★★

★★★

注意1.词数100左右

2可以适当增加细节以使行文连贯

参考词汇住宿accommodation

Dear Sir or Madam

I'm Li Huaa student from China.I expect to go to Britain for an English course this summer.I have read your ad and would like to know more about the sixweek course.

Firstplease tell me when the course will start so that I can make preparations in advance.Secondhow many students are there in a classI believe class size will matter most.Thirdhow many class hours do we have during a week? I hope we can have free time to go sightseeing after class.FourthI wonder how much you charge us for the course.Finallywhich type of accommodation do you offera host family or a school dormitory?

I'd appreciate your response as soon as possible.

Yours

Li Hua

识记·思考·运用

1核心单词

wedding  n. 婚礼结婚

error n错误差错

sightseeing n. 游览观光

nationwide  ad.全国范围内的全国性的

fold vt.折叠对折 unfold vt.打开拆开

arrange  v. 安排布置 arrangement n安排布置

unite vi.& vt.联合团结 united adj.团结的联合的 union n联合联盟结合协会

convenience n便利方便 convenient adj.方便的

rough adj.粗糙的粗暴的 roughly adv.粗略地粗糙地

attract vt.吸引引起注意 attraction n吸引吸引力 attractive adj.有吸引力的

delight n快乐喜悦 vt.使高兴使欣喜 delighted adj.高兴的快乐的

accomplish vt.完成达到实现

2阅读单词

fax  n. 传真

plus  prep.加, 加上

uniform  n. 制服

port  n. 港口, 码头

clarify vt.澄清;阐明

divide vt.分,划分

province  n.

communism n共产主义

conflict n矛盾;冲突

tense adj. 心烦意乱的,紧张的

administration n管理,行政部门

statue n雕像,塑像 vt.用雕像装饰

credit  n信任;学分;赞扬;信贷;信誉

institution n(慈善、宗教等性质的)公共机构; 学校

royal adj. 皇家的,王室的,国王的,女王的

historical adj.历史的,历史上的;基于史实的

splendid adj.壮丽的;辉煌的

possibility n可能()possible adj.可能的;合理的

arrange vt.筹备;安排;整理arrangement n布置;整理

description n描写;描述describe vt.描述;形容;描绘

consist vi.组成,一致 consistent adj.一致的

legal adj.法律的;合法的illegal(反义词)违法的

currency  n货币;现金 current adj当前的;通用的;流通的;流行的

available adj.可利用的;有用的availability n有效性;可利用

thrill vt.使激动;使胆战心惊 thrilling adj.令人激动的   thrilled  adj.激动的;兴奋的

architecture  n建筑学, 建筑设计, 风格 architect  n建筑师;  设计师

enjoyable adj.令人愉快的;使人高兴的enjoy v欣赏;喜爱enjoyment n乐趣;享乐

furnished adj.配备好装备的;带家具的furnish vt.装备;(用家具等)布置(房间、公寓);提供

exhibit n展览,陈列vt.呈现;陈列vi.展出 exhibition n展览;展出;展览品()

用上面所给单词的适当形式填空

1Several firms were united (unite)to form one company. 

2Professor Li was very delighted (delight)with the results.

3I have to find a convenient (convenience)location for the shelves.

4Historical buildings are both attractive (attract)and important to the majority of people.

5Since everything has been arranged (arrange)wellthe party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.

6The results are consistent (consist)with the earlier research.

7It is thought that the scenery of the West Lake is beautiful beyond description (describe)

8Another possibility (possible)is that we will go to Mexico instead.

9Thank you for writing and allowing me to clarify (clarify)the present position.

10He likes collecting stamps and now he has a large collection(collect)of various stamps.

1高兴家族速览

delight n快乐高兴 vt.使高兴使欣喜delighted adj.喜欢的高兴的delightful adj.令人高兴的

happy adj.愉快的高兴的

happiness n快乐幸福

joy n欢乐高兴joyful adj.快乐的高兴的

glad adj.高兴的欢喜的

please v(使……)高兴

pleased adj.高兴的满意的

pleasure n高兴满意

merry adj.欢乐的愉快的

merrily adv.快乐地

2后缀-ence必备名词集锦

consequence 后果结果

convenience 方便

dependence 依靠

difference 不同

emergence 紧急情况

existence 存在

intelligence 聪明

influence 影响

3ity为后缀的名词速记

possibility n可能性

ability n能力

popularity n受欢迎普及流行

personality n性格个性人格

nationality n国籍民族

minority n少数民族少数少数派少数人

4前缀a-高频表语形容词大全

alike 相同的类似的

asleep 睡着的

alive 活的有活力的

awake 醒着的

afraid 害怕的

ashamed  羞愧的

5一字之差的单词

statue雕像status 身份地位

affect影响effect影响效果

adapt适应adopt收养

sweat汗水sweet甜的

march前进match比赛

expand扩张expend花费

识记·思考·运用

1动词+介词/副词

divide...into……分成

break away(from) 挣脱(束缚)脱离

leave out省去遗漏不考虑

break down (机器)损坏破坏

consist of ……组成

2to one's名词

to one's credit……带来荣誉值得赞扬……名下

to one's delight/joy 使某人高兴的是

to one's surprise 使某人惊奇的是

3in+名词+(of)

in memory of 为了纪念

in favour of 支持……

in need of 需要……

in support of 支持

4其他形式

take the place of 代替

用左栏所给短语的适当形式填空

1Our class is divided into two groups during the discussion.

2The committee consists of ten members.

3It is much to her credit that Mary continued to work in spite of all the difficulties.

4The town was named after Mr.Smithin memory of his great contributions to its development.

5This word is wrongly spelt.You have left out a letter.

6Computers have taken the place of human beings in many fields so far.

7The TV broke down againwhich made me very unhappy.

8Taiwan is never allowed to break away from the mainland anyway.It is known to all that it belongs to China.

1动词+away必备短语一览

blow away 吹走

break away 摆脱

carry away 拿走使入迷

die away 逐渐消失减弱

give away 背弃赠送

put away 收起来存起来

wash away 冲走

take away 拿走

throw away 扔掉

turn away ……打发走

2to one'sn必备短语荟萃

to one's astonishment/surprise 令某人惊奇的是

to one's disappointment 令某人失望的是

to one's regret 使某人感到遗憾的是

to one's shame 使某人惭愧的是

在解读中学懂,在仿写中学通

背原句

学句型

练仿写

1.You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.

要使你的英国之行愉快且值得,你就必须留心观察。

keep/make+宾语+宾补结构。

为了让鱼儿在河里自由自在快快乐乐地游来游去,我们必须让河水保持干净。

We must keep the river clean in order to make the fish in it swim freely and happily.

2.Worried about the time availableZhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.

由于担心时间不够,张萍玉早就把她想要在伦敦参观的地点列了清单。

过去分词短语作状语。

在森林中迷了路,我们不得不待在原地等待帮助。

Lost in the forestwe had to remain where we werewaiting for help.

3.It looked splendid when first built!

刚建成的时候,它看起来真是金碧辉煌!

状语从句的省略。

刚被引入市场时,这些产品就取得了巨大的成功。

When first introduced to the marketthese products enjoyed great success.

4.It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.

这似乎是一件怪事:这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦敦生活过,并且在伦敦去世。

It seemed strange that...“……似乎有点儿奇怪should have done此处表示对过去发生的事情感到惊讶。

看起来很奇怪,他竟然拒绝了我们提出的行之有效的建议。

It seemed strange that he should have rejected the practical suggestion put forward by us.

3500词汇语境篇——先练后背,事半功倍

Sightseeing in the United Kingdom

After the weddingmy cousin and his wife went to the United Kingdom for nationwide sightseeing.He faxed a letter to me in English yesterday.1.To my delighthe no longer made any tense error.And his 2.description(describe) roughly clarified my questions about the UK—its currencyits administrationthe institution 3.which divides it into four provincesand the historical 4.conflicts (conflict) and quarrels when Southern Ireland broke away from the UK.

5Unwilling(will) to leave out any attractionmy cousin arranged his enjoyable journey carefully.One attractive place he visited was a castle in 6.the countryside of Scotlandwhich lies near a port.It used to be the headquarters of the Communism Union but broke down 7.during the war.Finding nothing could take the place of this 8.splendid(splendidly) architecturepeople accomplished rebuilding it in 1952.9.It was to their credit that all furnished rooms are consistent with what they used to be.My cousin 10.was thrilled(thrill) by its collections consisting of statues plus royal uniforms folded in glass tanks.Though there was no possibility to buy some of these exhibitsit was convenient to take photoswhich he sent me along with his fax.

NotesSouthern Ireland /'sʌðən 'aɪələnd/ n南爱尔兰 headquarter/'hedkwɔtə/ n指挥部司令部总部总店

convenience n便利;方便

(教材原句)England is the largest of the four countriesand for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones.

英格兰是四个国家中最大的,为方便起见,它大致可划分成三个地区。

拓展词:convenient adj.方便的;便利的

inconvenience n不方便;不便

inconvenient adj.不方便的

(1)for convenience为了方便起见

at one's convenience在某人方便的时候

for the convenience of...为了方便……

convenience food/store便利食品/便利店

(2)if it is convenient(to/for you)如果()方便的话

It is convenient for sb.to do sth.某人方便做某事

[要点释疑]

(1)convenience意为方便;便利时,为不可数名词;作便利的事物;便利设施讲时为可数名词。

(2)convenient作表语用时,主语不能是人,常用于It is convenient for sb.to do sth.句型。

(1)If it is convenient for youcan we have the lesson in my house on Sunday morning or Sunday evening?

若你方便,我们周日早还是晚在我家上课?

(2)语境活用

It's a great convenience (convenient) to live here.At my convenienceI can visit some of my favorite museums.Shopping is convenient to/for my wife.It is convenient for my son to go to schoolfor his school is only two blocks away.If Sunday is convenient (convenience) to/for yoube sure to come to get together.

住在这里真方便。我可以抽空去参观我所钟爱的几家博物馆。我妻子购物很方便。我儿子上学也很方便,因为距学校只有两个街区的距离。要是你周日有空,一定要来聚一聚。

(3)写出句子中黑体词的汉语意思

The most convenient parking is off Church Street.近处的;近便的

(4)单句语法填空

(2018·北京卷)The convenience(convenient) even  leads fewer people to take public transport—an unwelcome  side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing (叫车) services.

attract vt.吸引;引起注意

(教材原句)It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors.很遗憾,这些建于19世纪的工业城市对游客并没有吸引力。

拓展词:attraction n吸引,吸引力;有吸引力的事物或人

attractive adj.有吸引力的;引人注意的

(1)attract one's attention/mind吸引某人的注意力

be attracted by……所吸引

attract sb.to sth.吸引某人关注某事

(2)have an/no/a little/much attraction for sb.对某人具有/没有/有一点/很有吸引力

(3)be attractive to……有吸引力

(1)Seeing something attractive(attract) seems to cause happy thinking.看到吸引人的某种东西会产生幸福的想法。

(2)语境活用

The scenery is so attractive (attract)that it attracts (attract) many tourists' attention every yearand it will keep on holding much attraction (attract) for more travellers.

这里的风景如此迷人以至于每年都吸引了很多游客的注意力并且将持续吸引更多的游客。

(3)写作能力提升

He was attracted by the beauty and he didn't want to leave right now.(用过去分词短语作状语改写)

Attracted by the beautyhe didn't want to leave right now.

arrange v筹备;安排;整理;布置;排列

(教材原句)So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him.于是,我们安排这名球员和被认为行贿的人一起接受采访。

拓展词:arrangement n安排;布置

(1)arrange sth.for sb.为某人安排某事

arrange to do sth.安排做某事;约定做某事

arrange with sb.to do sth.与某人约定做某事

arrange for sb.to do sth.安排某人做某事

arrange that...商定……;安排……

(2)make arrangements/an arrangement for...……做安排

[要点释疑]

(1)表示安排某人做某事arrange for sb.to do sth.而不用arrange sb.to do sth.

(2)make arrangements(for sth./for sb.to do sth.)中的arrangement常用复数形式。

(3)arrange后接that从句时,从句用should+动词原形

(1)You can't sit around and wait for others to arrange(arrange) your lifeif you want somethingfight for it yourself.

你不能闲坐着等待别人来安排你的人生;如果你想要某些东西,自己去争取。

(2)语境活用

Now everything for the conference to be held tomorrow has been arranged(已准备就绪)I have arranged for Tom to pick up(安排Tom开车去接)the experts at the airport.Then I'm to arrange to meet (安排接见)Mr Wang.In a wordall the arrangements we made(我们做出的安排)are completed.

(3)写作能力提升

Since everything has been arranged wellthe party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.

Everything (having been) arranged wellthe party will begin at 8 o'clock as planned.

一切都已安排好了,晚会将在八点如期开始。

delight n快乐,高兴,喜悦

vt.&vi.(使)高兴;(使)欣喜

(教材原句)Her first delight was going to the Tower.It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.

她最先想参观的地方是伦敦塔,它是很久以前由入侵的诺曼人在公元1066年修建的。

拓展词:delighted adj.高兴的,欣喜的

delightful adj.令人愉快的,使人高兴的

 使某人(大为)高兴的是

take/find/have delight in(doing)sth.()……为乐

with/in delight高兴地

It is a delight to do sth.做某事是一件令人愉快的事

(2)delight sb.with sth.用某物取悦某人

(3)be delighted

(1)Bedtime stories are one of the delights of early childhood.睡前故事是儿时的一大乐趣。

(2)语境活用

Much to my delightmy son delights(delight)in learning English.He is delighted(delight)to listen to English songs and sing after the tape again and again.Yesterday he came home with delight and delighted (delight)me with the good news that he won the first place in an English competition.

很让我高兴的是,儿子喜欢学英语了。他喜欢听英语歌曲并且一遍又一遍地跟着唱。昨天他很高兴地回到家并且告诉了我一条让我高兴的消息——他在一场英语竞赛中获得第一名。

consist of……组成

(教材原句)How many countries does the UK consist of?

英国是由几个部分(国家)组成的?

(1)consist ofbe made up of……组成;由……构成

consist inlie in存在于;在于

consist with……一致/相符

(2)consistent adj.相容的一致的

be consistent with……一致/相符

[要点释疑]

consist of一般不用于被动语态和进行时,其同义短语有:be made up ofbe composed of

(1)Success does not consist in never making mistakes but in never making the same one a second time.

成功并不在于从不犯错,而在于不重蹈覆辙。

(2)Life consists of not only sunshine but also hard times.

生活中不仅有阳光,还有艰难困苦的时刻。

(3)The true wealth does not consist/lie in what we havebut in what we are.

真正的财富不在于我们拥有什么,而在于我们是什么。

(4)语境活用

Life mainly consists(consist) of happiness and sorrow while happiness and sorrow consist in struggle.Remember that your ideal life does not always consist with the reality.生活主要是由快乐和悲伤组成的,而快乐和悲伤存在于拼搏之中。记住,理想的生活并不总是和现实相一致。

(5)写作能力提升

The companywhich consists of three small factoriesdeclared bankruptcy yesterday because of the serious financial crisis.(定语从句)

The companyconsisting of three small factoriesdeclared bankruptcy yesterday because of the serious financial crisis.(分词作状语)

由于严重的财政危机,这个由三家小工厂组成的公司昨天宣告破产。

(6)单句语法填空

(2018·天津卷)Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting(consist)of heat detectorssmoke detectors and sprinklers.For your safetynever tamper with(胡乱摆弄)these systems.

break down(机器)出故障;(计划、希望、谈判等)失败;身体垮掉;分解

(教材原句)On my way to the station my car broke down.

在去车站的路上,我的汽车坏了。

break down坏掉;打破;(机器)出故障

break into闯入;打断(话题)

break into pieces成为碎片

break out爆发

break through突围;突破

break up粉碎;解散

break in打断;训练

(1)写出下列句子中黑体词的含义

The elevator broke down and we had to walk up to the tenth floor.出故障

The car broke down on the way to the airport.抛锚

The old man's health broke down after a serious illness.(身体)垮掉

His plan broke down when it was put into practice.失败

Plastic bags are difficult to break down.分解

(2)break相关短语的适当形式填空

I hear that Jim and Mary are breaking up.

Last night somebody broke into Mr White's house and took away a lot of things.

Warm applause broke out after his speech.

The soldiers broke through the enemy's defence works.

The school has broken up for the holidays.

Dad would occasionally break in with a suggestion.

(3)单句语法填空

(2018·北京卷)Federica Bertocchinico-author of the studysays the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food-beeswax—also allows them to break down plastic.

leave out 省去;遗漏;不考虑

(教材原句)Which country is left out?

哪个国家被漏掉了?

(1)leave...alone 不去打扰(某人);让(某人)独自待着;别碰(某物)

leave...aside 不予考虑;搁置一边

leave behind 留下;忘带;遗留

leave for 动身去

leave off 停止;中断

leave over 留下,剩下,延后,推迟

leave sb.doing 让某人一直处于某种状态

(2)be/feel left out 被冷落;觉得被忽视(冷落)

be left over 剩下;残留

(1)写出下列句子中黑体词的含义

You've left out the most important word in this sentence.遗漏

You can leave out the details, just give us the main facts.省去

Don't leave me outpleaseI want to go theretoo.不考虑

(2)leave相关短语的适当形式填空

She left out a piece of important detail in her report due to insufficient preparation.

Because I was in a great hurryI left my coat behind in the bus.

The newly married couple are leaving for their honeymoon.

I went on with my story just where I had left off.

 

 It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.

奇怪的是,这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦敦生活过,并且在这里去世。

Itbe/seemsstrange(necessaryimportantnaturala pitya shame...)that...句型中,that所引导的主语从句的谓语动词常用should+动词原形这种虚拟语气形式,should可以省略。

(1)It is true that we may suffer from failure from time to time.Howeverit is important that we (should)not lose the enthusiasm to keep on trying.

我们会因不时的失败而痛苦这是事实。但是,重要的是我们不应该失去继续尝试的热情。

(2)单句语法填空

It is recommended that the plan (should)be delayed(delay)because of bad weather.

It is strange that he (should)have done (do)such silly things.

It's a great pity that the famous singer (should)take (take)drugs.

(3)写作能力提升

It seems that the matter is more complex.(改为简单句)

The matter seems to be more complex.

.单词拼写

1It is not necessary for parents to arrange (安排)everything for their children.

2It is thought that the scenery of the West Lake is beautiful beyond description (描述)

3Before starting the new servicethe company carried out a nationwide (全国范围的)opinion poll.

4We spent the days sightseeing (观光)and the evenings sitting in the bars drinking the local wine.

5He was unwilling(不乐意)to face the fact that he had failed the exam.

6If two people or groups are in conflict(冲突)they have had a serious disagreement or argument and have not yet reached an agreement.

7Difficult though the task wasthey managed to accomplish (完成)it in time.

8To clarify (澄清)something means to make it easier to understandusually by explaining it in more details.

.单句改错

1My husband arranged me to ride in a hot air balloon for my birthday.arranged后加for

2To his delightinghe got the first place in the maths exam.delightingdelight

3Rainbow Valley is great tourist attractiondrawing many visitors every year.is后加a

4Please come and see me for your convenience.forat

5This population consists birdsbatsfrogssnakesetc.consists后加of

6The library is divided of different zones.ofinto

7It is strange that he knows so much about me.knows(should)know

8The old man has been fired and now a young man takes place.take后加his

.教材与语法填空

If you study British historyyou may find the country went 1.through several different names.The first name England referred to England and Wales,2.but when the two countries joined Scotland in the seventeenth centurythe name Great Britain 3.was given (give)to represent the country.4.With the joining of Northern Irelandthe country got the name the United Kingdom,5.which was shown to the world in a new flag 6.called (call) the Union Jack.

Of 7.the four countriesEngland is the 8.largest (large) and is divided into three zonesthe Souththe North and the Midlands.9.Its capital Londonwhich has been influenced by some invaderslike the Romansthe Vikingsthe AngloSaxons and the Normansis the greatest 10.historical (history) treasure of all with its museumsart collectionstheatresparks and buildings.

.教材与短文改错

Worry about the time availableZhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.Her first delightful was going to the Tower.It built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.Thereforethe building had expanded around it.It is remained part of a royal palace and prison combined.To my great surpriseZhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiersthat still wore the fourhundredyearold uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth on special occasions.She finishes the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palacethe Queen's house in London.Ohshe had so many to tell her friends!

答案:

 about the time availableZhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.Her first  was going to the Tower.It  built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.the  had expanded around it.It  is  remained part of a royal palace and prison combined.To  great surpriseZhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers still wore the fourhundredyearold uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth on special occasions.She  the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palacethe Queen's house in London.Ohshe had so  to tell her friends!

.话题微写作

1英国的全称是大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国它由英格兰威尔士苏格兰和北爱尔兰四个国家组成其中英格兰是四个国家中面积最大的一个

2英国位于欧洲西北部英吉利海峡把它与欧洲大陆分开

3英国有许多旅游胜地其美景难以用语言描述

4首都伦敦是欧洲最大和最具国际特色的城市交通很便利

The full name of the UK is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelandwhich consists of four countries—EnglandWalesScotland and Northern Ireland.Among them England is the largest one.The UK lies in the northwest of Europe and is separated from the Europe Continent by the English Channel.There are a lot of attractions in the UKwhose beauty is really beyond description.Its capital city London is the largest and most international city of Europeand its transportation is very convenient.

 


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