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中考英语语法——代词讲解

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代词

代词的定义和特征

代词是代替名词以及起名词作用的短语、分词和句子的词。

1)Because he had a bad coldJack decided to stay in bed the whole day. (代词he代替名词Jack)

2)The Browns said they might move to California. (代词they代替名词短语the Browns)

3)Bob always answers his teachers questions well; that shows that he works very hard at home. (代词that代替前面的分句)

代词之间有两点共同之处:

第一,它们本身的词义都很弱,必须从上下文来确定;

第二,许多代词都有两种功用:一可单独取代名词的位置,二可起修饰语的作用。

代词的种类

代词可分为八类:

1)人称代词(personal pronoun)

a)主格:Iyouhesheitweyouthey

b)宾格:meyouhimheritusyouthem

2)物主代词(possessive pronoun)

a)形容词性物主代词:myyourhisheritsouryourtheir

b)名词性物主代词:mineyourshishersitsoursyourstheirs

3)反身代词(reflexive pronoun)myselfyourselfhimselfherselfitselfourselvesyourselvesthemselvesoneself

4)相互代词(reciprocal pronoun)each otherone another

5)指示代词(demonstrative pronoun)thisthatthesethoseitsuchsame

6)疑问代词(interrogative pronoun)whowhomwhosewhichwhat

7)关系代词(relative pronoun)whowhomwhosewhichthatas

8)不定代词(indefinite pronoun)somesomethingsomebodysomeoneanyanythinganybodyanyonenonothingnobodyno oneeveryeverythingeveryoneeverybodyeachmuchmanylittlea littlefewa fewotheranotherallnoneonebotheitherneither

一、人称代词

1、人称代词的形式(见下表)

2、人称代词的作用

人称代词在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语等。

(1)人称代词作主语时用主格

I lost my wallet in the park.

(2)人称代词作宾语时用宾格

I saw you in the street.

(3)人称代词作表语时一般用宾格

Who is knocking at the doorIts me.

3、在使用人称代词时有下面几点注意:

(1)weyou两词有时泛指一般人,指大家。

You never know what may happen.

(2)she可以用来代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。

I think Chinese will do what she promised to do.

(3)I在并列的主语中,总放最后。

(4)it有许多用法

(a)代表已提到过的一件事物。

I love swimming. It keeps me fit.

(b)当说话者不知道对方的性别时,可用it来表示。

Its a lovely baby. Is it a boy or a girl

(c)可用来指带时间、距离、自然现象等。

It is half past three now.

(d)用于固定搭配中。

Take it easy.

walk it步行 make it办成 take it out of somebody拿某人出气

二、物主代词

1、物主代词的形式

2、物主代词的作用

1)形容词性物主代词只能作定语。

The tall boy is my student.

2)名词性物主代词

(1)   作表语

Whose dictionary is thisIts mine.

(2)   作主语

Our room is on the first floor and theirs is on the second.

(3)   作宾语

You may use my pen. Ill use hers.

(4)of连用作定语

He is a close friend of ours.

三、反身代词

1、反身代词的形式

2、反身代词的作用

(1)   作宾语

 I cant express myself in English.

(2)   作表语

He is not quite himself these days.

(3)作同位语

反身代词作同位语时,往往是用来加强名词或代词的语气,应重读;在句中常置于名词、代词之后或句子末尾。

The theory itself is all right.

We had better ask the teacher herself about it.

(5)偶尔用作主语 这种独立使用的反身代词语气较强。

Both my sister and myself were invited to the party.

(6)用于固定习语 help oneself tohurt oneselfenjoy oneselfdress oneselfby oneselfin oneself(本身)between ourselves(私下说的话,不可告诉别人)

四、相互代词

相互代词表示相互关系。

1、相互代词的形式

2、相互代词的用法

(1)相互代词宾格用作宾语

We can help each other.

(2)相互代词属格用作定语

We should point out each others shortcomings.

五、指示代词

指示代词是用来指示或标识人或事物的代词。

1、指示代词的形式

其他还有:suchsosameit(指人用)

2、指示代词的用法

(1)作主语 These arent my books.

(2)作宾语 She will do that.

(3)作表语 My idea is this.

(4)作定语 This book is about Chinese traditional medicine.

(5)thisthat有时可用作状语,表示程度,译为这么那么

The book is this thick.]

(6)thatthose有时用来代表前面提到的东西,以避免重复这个名词

The weather in Han Dan is cooler than that in Guangzhou.(代替不可数名词weather)

The machines are better than those we made last year.(代替可数名词复数machines)

My room was lighter than the one next door.(如果是单数可数名词用the one来代替)

六、疑问代词

1、疑问代词的形式

2、疑问代词的用法

1)who通常作主语和表语

Who is on duty today

2)whom作宾语

Whom do you wish to speak to

With whom did you go(口语中说Who did you go with?更多一些。)

3)whosewhatwhich这三个代词可以用作

(1)   主语

Whose is better

What happened next

(2)   表语

Whose is it

Whats your father

(3)宾语

Whose are you going to borrow

(4)定语

Whose umbrella is this

七、关系代词

1、关系代词的形式

whowhomwhosewhichthat是用来引起定语从句的。它一面代表定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词,一面又在从句内担当一个成分(通称为先行词)

2、关系代词的用法

1)who代表人,在从句中做主语或宾语。

The girl who spoke is my best friend.

Do you like the teacher who (whom) we talked with

2)whom代表人,在从句中作宾语。

He is the man whom (who) you have been looking for.

3)whose代表某个人的,在从句中作定语。

Do you know anyone whose family is in Xian

4)which代表事物,在从句中可以作主语和宾语。

He told a story which moved us deeply.

5)that既代表人也代表物,在从句中可以作主语、宾语或表语。

This is the plane that will fly to Tokyo in the afternoon.

Fool that I was

八、不定代词

不定代词是不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词的代词,英语中不定代词有:some(somethingsomebodysomeone)any(anythinganybodyanyone)no(nothingnobodyno one)every(everythingeverybodyeveryone)alleachbothmuchmany(a)little(a)fewother(s)anothernoneoneeitherneither等。

1.不定代词的作用

1)     作主语

Both(of us) are right.

Either(of the answers) is correct.

Neither(of the answers) is correct.

Is everybody here

Nothing special happened yesterday.

All is going well.

2)     作宾语

There is room for all of us.

  I like none of the books

If you have anygive us some.

3)     作表语

Thanksits too much for me.

Thats really something.

4)     作定语

You may take either road.

Everybodys business is nobodys business.人人都管等于没人管。()

Please give another example to illustrate your point.

5)作同位语

We none of us said anything.

Give them two each.

2.不定代词的用法比较

1)alleveryeach的比较

all在表示抽象的整体概念时,作单数,相当于everything:

All was destroyed in the big fire.

Grasp alllose all.什么都抓,什么都抓不住。()

all指人时用作复数,意为指三者以上的全部全体,相当于everyone,例:

All are present.

She knows us all.

all在人称代词前面,只能用all of,而且要与人称代词的宾格usyouthem等连用,如:all of us,而不能说成all us

every用于三个或三个以上的人或物,是每一个的意思,只能作定语,强调整体概念,例:

Every player is present.

They helped us in every way.

在表示每个全体意思时,every的意思与all很接近。但一般情况下every和单数名词搭配,all和复数名词搭配,例:

Every child enjoys Christmas.

All children enjoy Christmas.

Each也是每一个的意思,但与every不同,each用于指两个或两个以上的人或物,着重于个别概念,例:

Two men came into the room. Each carried an umbrella.

Each book on this desk is worth reading.

He gave three to each(of them).

2)someany的比较

不定代词someany都是一些的意思,都可和可数名词或不可数名词连用。some一般用于肯定句中;而any则用于否定句、疑问句或条件从句中,例:

Have you any questions

If there are any new magazines in the librarytake some for me.

注意:在表示请求或建议,希望得到肯定回答的疑问句中,应用some而不用any,例:

Would you please give me some paper

Would you like some sugar

some还可用于盼望得到肯定答复的疑问句,如:

Isnt there some ink in that bottle

any表示任何无论哪一个的意义时,可用于肯定句,此时any要重读,例:Any one will do.任何一个都行。

You may come at any time that is convenient to you.

someanybodyonething构成合成代词somebodysomeonesomethinganybodyanyoneanything等和someany的基本用法一样,由some构成的合成代词一般用于肯定句,由any构成的合成代词一般用于否定句和疑问句。

如果要在疑问句中表示请求,建议等肯定的意思或者盼望得到肯定的答复,须用somebodysomeonesomething

3)manymuchfewlittle

many(很多)few(很少)a few(有几个)是表示数的代词,用以代替或修饰可数名词;much(很多)little(很少)a little(有一些)是表示量的代词,用以代替或修饰不可数名词。a fewa little表示肯定的意义,而fewlittle则表示否定意义。这些词一般作定语时较多,有时也可作主语、宾语,例:She has as many books as you. (定语)

I have few books to lend you.

Many have come to the meeting.

He knows little about it.

How much is it

注意:a lot(of)plenty of等一类的短语相当于manymuch,可修饰可数或不可数名词,一般用于肯定句:

She has a lot of books on this subject.

4)other(s)the otheranother

other表示另一个的意思,在句中可作主语、宾语或定语,不独立使用,通常修饰可数名词复数。其复数形式是others,可独立使用,无范围限定。otherothers前面加定冠词the时是特指,表示两个中的一个;前面不带定冠词the时,表示泛指,例:

I have two brothers.One is a doctorthe other is a teacher. (特指,作主语)

He is always ready to help others. (泛指,作宾语)

another(另外一个,又一个)只能代替或修饰单数名词,可用作主语、宾语或定语,不独立使用。它实际上是由an+other构成的,因此前面不可再用冠词,即不定指。例:

Dont lose heart.Have another try. (作定语)

I have got three English novels.One is written by Charles Dickensanother(is written)by Mark Twainand the third(is written)by Bronte. (作主语)

another后面还可以跟few或带数字的复数名词,例:

Just think what our town will be like in another few years.

Youd better stay in bed for another two weeks.

 

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