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高考英语语法一轮复习教案——定语从句讲解与练习(无答案)

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高中英语定语从句详解

仔细观察下列句子, 并注意划线部分的用法。

1. That’s all that I know.

2. Anyone who was late this morning should be responsible for this accident.

3. This is the scientist whose achievements are well known.

4. What do you think of the photos that/ whichI took in the park?

5. They talked about the people and things that they remembered in the old days.

Ⅰ. 概念:

(1) 定语从句:在主从复合句中用作______的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词(antecedent)后面。

(2) 先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个短语,或整个主句

(3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词关系副词

关系词的作用:

1)代替先行词;

2)引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词;

3)必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语)

常用的关系代词: that, which, who, whom, as, whose

常用的关系副词: when, why, where

who, that, _____ 作主语;

who, whom, which, ____作宾语和表语;

______作定语。

注意:当关系代词作____语时常常可省略, 而作____语时则不能省略。

The student who answered the question was John.

I know the reason why he was so angry.

The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother.

I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea.

定语从句三步:

第一找出先行词;

第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语);

第三选择合适的关系词。

Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法:

●that: 可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。(指人时,相当于whowhom;指物时,相当于which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如:

1. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now?

2. You can take anything ( that) you like.

3. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about?

4. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see.

5. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.

●which: 指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。如:

1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.

2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.

3. The factory in which his father works is far from here.

●who, whom, whose:

who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人

whom: 宾格,在从句中作宾语; 只可指人

whose: 属格,在从句中作定语,可指人也可指物。

1. I like the students who/that work hard.

2. All who heard the story were amazed.

3. He's a man from whom we should learn.

= He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from.

4. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.

5. I'd like a room whose window faces south. 

=I'd like a room of which the window faces south. 

=I'd like a room the window of which faces south.

关系代词作介词宾语: (介词+ whom / which

关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放于句首较为正式.(介词前置,必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。)

1.This is the book for which you asked.

 =This is the book (that/which) you asked for.

2. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands

= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with?

3. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week?

4. Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week?

5. This is the girl whom they are looking after.

 (介词afterlook构成固定词组,不可前置。look at, look for, look after, take care of)

●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语)

如为限制性的,多用于the same …as ; the same assuch …as …; as many/much asso …as等结构中。如:

1. I have the same book as you (have).

2. .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now?

--- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning.

3. Don't do such things as you are not sure about.

比较:I live in the same house that he used to live in.

      I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday.

比较:Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.

      Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.

如为非限制性的,多单独引导一个定语从句,这种定语从句可置于句首,句中或句尾,译为"正如,这一点"。(动词常为know, see, expect, point out, etc.

1.As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health .

=As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health .

=It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health .

=Smoking is harmful to one's health, as we all know .

=Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health.

2.He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent.

Ⅲ. 关系副词引导的定语从句:

●When 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。其先行词是表时间的名词(如:time, day, week, tear, month, etc.

He came last night when I was out.

We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better.

注意:先行词为"时间名词",可用when引导定语从句,when在定语从句中作状语;还可以用whichthat 引导,whichthat在从句中作主语或宾语。

比较:1.  I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.

2. I still remember the days which/that we spent together.

3. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life.

●Where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词,如:place, school, factory, room, etc.

This is the place where I was born.

I live in the room where /in which he used to live.

注意:先行词是"地点名词",定语从句可用where引导,还可用whichthat引导,which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。

比较:

1. This is the factory where /in which he worked last year.

2. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail.

3. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane.

4. This is the park which/that they visited last year.

●Why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为reason 时,可用for which指代;当关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时,则用whichthat 引导。如:

1. The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill.

2. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me.

3. Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success?

当先行词为way时,the way在从句中作状语时,定语从句常用that, in which,how引导,that常可以省略。

the way在从句中作主语或宾语时,则用whichthat 引导。如:

This is the way (that)  /in which I do such things.

比较: Please do the experiment in the waythat/whichI have shown you.

Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:

1. 形式上,非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。

2. 语法上,非限制性定语从句一般不用that.

3. 语义上,限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密,起限定作用,如果去掉了这个定语从句,整个句子就不完整或者会改变意思;而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密,对先行词起补充说明或描述的作用。

This is the book I like best. 

Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years, is rich in cultural and historic relics.

4. 翻译时,限制性定语从句可译为一句(较短的一般译为""字结构);而非限制性定语从句可译为两句。

比较:  He has a sister, who is a musician.

      He has a sister who is a musician.

引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词指人时用who, whom, whose ,指物时用which , whose;关系副词whenwhere, why, etc.

1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life.

2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist.

Ⅴ. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较:

●that & which:

在定语从句中,which that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是这样,这里介绍that, 而不which 的情况.

先行词为不定代词,all, much, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one,

1.We should do all that is useful to the people .

2.There's nothing that can be said about it .

3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday?

先行词被only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of等词修饰时。

1.The only thing that we could do was to wait.

2.That's the very word that is wrongly used.

3. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works.

比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year.

 *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year.

先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。

1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake.

2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term.

先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。

1.This is the best that can be done now.

2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on.

先行词既有人又有物,用whichwho都不适合,这时宜用that. 如:

1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known .

2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police.

被修饰词为数词.

1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive .

如果有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用which ,另一个关系代词宜用that,以避免语言的单调或重复

Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

疑问词是whowhich,关系代词宜用that,以避免重复。

1. Which is the book that you like best?

2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate?

主句是There be结构,修饰其主句的定语从句宜用that 作关系代词. 如:

1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free.

被修饰成分为表语时,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用that .

1. That's a good book that will help you a lot.

2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be .

定语从句中which而不that 的情况:

当关系代词的前面有介词.

1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.

2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives?

非限制性定语从句.

1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died .

2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming popular in our country. 在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that, 另一个宜用which .

1. Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.

当关系代词后面带有插入语时.

1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English.

先行词本身是that, 宜用which .

What's that which she is looking at?

先行词是those+复数名词.

A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best.

(B) who & that:

who that 指代人时,有些情况who, 而不that

先行词为anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people. 如:

1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well.

2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason .

3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once.

There be 结构中,修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词who 指代人. 如:

1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you .

2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses.

当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如:

1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well.

●as & which:

as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别

位置的不同:

which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的句子后;as 位置较灵活,也就是说as可置于所限制的句子前面;插在句子中或放在句子后。如:

1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry.

2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. Jack is an honest man , as you know.

As you know, Jack is an honest man.

先行词的不同:

as引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词多为一个句子;

which引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词可以是一个词,一个短语或一个句子。

1. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.

2. He was proud, which I dislike very much.(先行词是一个句子)

3. He is an honest man, as is known to all.

as 一般译为"正如""就像""这一点"

as we all knowas you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined.

合并下列句子

1. The woman is a teacher.

2 .The woman lives next door.

 

1. The nurse is kind.

2. The nurse looks after my sister.

 

1.Kevin is reading a book.

2. The book is too difficult for him.

 

1. I have a friend.

2. He likes listening to classical music.

 

1. Many people were afraid to swim in the sea.

2. They saw the film Jaws.

 

1. It is about a big white shark.

2. It attacks swimmers.

 

1. I know the doctor.

2. His daughter studies abroad.

 

1. Have you seen my book?

2. The book’s cover is red.

 

用适当的关系词填空.

1.Do you like the present __________I bought you yesterday?

2. The storybook _________was written by his uncle was quite interesting.

3. The boy ______ computer doesn’t work well needs your help.

4. This is the best movie _________ we have seen this year.

5. The doctor  ______________ we met in the street is from America.

6. The passengers and the suitcases  _____  were in the waiting room had to wait for another plane.

7. Who is the girl _________ you want to make friends with?

8. This is the last lesson ___________ Mr. Smith taught us.

用适当的关系词填空.

1. I will never forget the day __________ I first went to school.

  I will never forget the day __________ we spent in Beijing.

2. The house __________ we visited is being repaired now.

  The house ______ Luxun once lived is being repaired now.

选择适当的代词填空,注意非限制性定语从句和单句的比较。

1.I am reading Harry Porter, _____is an interesting book.

2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry.

3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry.

4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers.

5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers.

介词+关系代词的使用

1.  Do you like the book ___________________ she spent $10?    

2.  Do you like the book ___________________  she paid $10?

3.  Do you like the book ___________________ she learned a lot?   

4.  Do you like the book___________________ she often talks?

定语从句汉译英练习 

1她就是那个努力学习数学的女孩。

 

2他就是我们刚才谈论的那个人。 

 

3、这就是那个爸爸是警察的女孩。 

 

4、他们住在一座窗户朝南的房子里。

 

5、我仍然记得我第一次来到这座城市的那一天 

 

6这就是我们以前住过的房子 

 

7他考试通过了,这使他父母很高兴。 

 

8他们正在谈论在公园里看到的人和物。 

 

用适当的关系词填空: 

1. I still remember the night _______I first came to the house. 

2. I'll never forget the day________   we met each other last week. 

3. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, _______is the best season there. 

4. This is the school ______I used to study.  

5. Do you still remember the place______ we visited last week? 

6. Do you still remember the place_______ we visited the painting exhibition? 

7. I live in Beijing,____is the capital of China. 

8. There was a time ______there were slaves in the USA. 

9. It was in the street _____I met John yesterday. 

10. This is the very novel about____we've talked so much. 

11. He lives in the room____window faces to the south. 

12. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful place____you may spend your weekend. 

对比练习

1. Tom is one of the boys who  ____ (be) from the USA.

Tom is the only one of the boys who ____ (be) from the USA.

. Is this factory _____we visited last week?

Is this the factory _____we visited last week?

A. that   B. whose    C. who D. the one

. The old man did _____ he could to help the children.

  The old man did all  ____ he could to help the children.

A. what    B. that    C. all what    D. which

4. (1) The room ____ window faces south is my sister’s.

 (2) The room ____ faces south is my sister’s.

  A. which   B. whose    C. who D. whom

单句改错

  1. He lived in Beijing for two years, during when he learned Chinese.
  2. He said he would come to see us the next week, then he had free time.
  3. He won the first place in this exam, that made him very glad.
  4. The man, that lives next to us, is my English teacher.
  5. She made a terrible noise, and which brought her heart to her mouth.
  6. This is one of the books which was written by Lu Xun.
  7. This is the most beautiful place that I have visited it.
  8. The school where I worked there is a famous one.
  9. The tomatoes were on the table were given to you.
  10. The room where he lives in is bigger than mine.

用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空

  1. My classmate lives in Wuhan, _______ is one of the hottest cities in China.
  2. The teacher is much kinder to girls than to boys, _______ of course makes the boys very angry.
  3. His father works in the company, _______ computers are made.
  4. Jack is always absent from class, _______ is why he is blamed by his teacher.
  5. The gentleman _______ you told me about yesterday proved to be a thief.
  6. The old man remembered the very day ______ he met Chairman Mao.
  7. I’m going to visit New York, ______ my parents live.
  8. I have two brothers, the taller of ______ is a college student.
  9. I live in a new house _______ windows face south.
  10. I study in the classroom, in front of ______ stands a big tree.

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