1. That’s all that I know.
2. Anyone who was late this morning should be responsible for this accident.
3. This is the scientist whose achievements are well known.
4. What do you think of the photos that/ whichI took in the park?
5. They talked about the people and things that they remembered in the old days.
常用的关系代词: that, which, who, whom, as, whose
常用的关系副词: when, why, where
⑴ who, that, _____ 作主语；
⑵ who, whom, which, ____作宾语和表语；
The student who answered the question was John.
I know the reason why he was so angry.
The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother.
I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea.
●that: 可指人或物；在定语从句中作主语，宾语，表语。(指人时，相当于who或 whom；指物时，相当于which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如：
1. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now?
2. You can take anything ( that) you like.
3. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about?
4. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see.
5. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.
1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.
2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.
3. The factory in which his father works is far from here.
●who, whom, whose:
who: 主格, 在从句中作主语，在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人
whom: 宾格，在从句中作宾语; 只可指人
1. I like the students who/that work hard.
2. All who heard the story were amazed.
3. He's a man from whom we should learn.
= He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from.
4. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.
5. I'd like a room whose window faces south.
=I'd like a room of which the window faces south.
=I'd like a room the window of which faces south.
关系代词作介词宾语： （介词+ whom / which）
关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放于句首较为正式.（介词前置，必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。）
1.This is the book for which you asked.
=This is the book (that/which) you asked for.
2. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands？
= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with?
3. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week?
4. Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week?
5. This is the girl whom they are looking after.
(介词after与look构成固定词组，不可前置。look at, look for, look after, take care of等)
●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语)
①如为限制性的，多用于the same …as ; the same as；such …as …; as many/much as；so …as等结构中。如：
1. I have the same book as you (have).
2. .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now?
--- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning.
3. Don't do such things as you are not sure about.
比较：I live in the same house that he used to live in.
I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday.
比较：Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.
Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.
②如为非限制性的，多单独引导一个定语从句，这种定语从句可置于句首，句中或句尾，译为"正如，这一点"。（动词常为know, see, expect, point out, etc.）
1.As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health .
=As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health .
=It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health .
=Smoking is harmful to one's health, as we all know .
=Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health.
2.He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent.
●When 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。其先行词是表时间的名词（如：time, day, week, tear, month, etc.）
He came last night when I was out.
We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better.
比较:1. I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.
2. I still remember the days which/that we spent together.
3. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life.
●Where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词，如：place, school, factory, room, etc.
This is the place where I was born.
I live in the room where /in which he used to live.
1. This is the factory where /in which he worked last year.
2. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail.
3. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane.
4. This is the park which/that they visited last year.
●Why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为reason 时，可用for which指代；当关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时，则用which或that 引导。如：
1. The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill.
2. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me.
3. Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success?
当先行词为way时，the way在从句中作状语时，定语从句常用that, in which,或how引导，that常可以省略。
the way在从句中作主语或宾语时，则用which或that 引导。如:
This is the way (that) /in which I do such things.
比较: Please do the experiment in the way（that/which）I have shown you.
This is the book I like best.
Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years, is rich in cultural and historic relics.
比较: He has a sister, who is a musician.
He has a sister who is a musician.
引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词，指人时用who, whom, whose ,指物时用which , whose;关系副词when，where, why, etc.
1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life.
2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist.
●that & which:
在定语从句中，which 和that 在指代事物时，一般可以互换使用，但并非在任何情况下都是这样，这里介绍用that, 而不用which 的情况.
①先行词为不定代词,all, much, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one等,
1.We should do all that is useful to the people .
2.There's nothing that can be said about it .
3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday?
②先行词被only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of等词修饰时。
1.The only thing that we could do was to wait.
2.That's the very word that is wrongly used.
3. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works.
比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year.
*This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year.
1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake.
2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term.
1.This is the best that can be done now.
2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on.
1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known .
2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police.
1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive .
Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.
1. Which is the book that you like best?
2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate?
⑨主句是There be结构，修饰其主句的定语从句宜用that 作关系代词. 如：
1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free.
1. That's a good book that will help you a lot.
2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be .
1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.
2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives?
1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died .
2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming popular in our country. ③在一个句子中有两个定语从句，其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that, 另一个宜用which .
1. Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.
1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English.
⑤先行词本身是that, 宜用which .
What's that which she is looking at?
A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best.
(B) who & that:
who 和 that 指代人时，有些情况用who, 而不用that
①先行词为anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people时. 如：
1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well.
2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason .
3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once.
②在There be 结构中，修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词who 指代人. 如：
1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you .
2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses.
1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well.
●as & which:
as & which 引导非限制性定语从句的区别：
which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的句子后；as 位置较灵活，也就是说as可置于所限制的句子前面；插在句子中或放在句子后。如：
1. He was late again, which made his teacher very angry.
2. Jack, as you know, is an honest man. 或Jack is an honest man , as you know.
或As you know, Jack is an honest man.
1. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.
2. He was proud, which I dislike very much.（先行词是一个句子）
3. He is an honest man, as is known to all.
as we all know；as you know; as is known to all; as you see; as we can see; as has been expected; as we have imagined.
1. The woman is a teacher.
2 .The woman lives next door.
1. The nurse is kind.
2. The nurse looks after my sister.
1.Kevin is reading a book.
2. The book is too difficult for him.
1. I have a friend.
2. He likes listening to classical music.
1. Many people were afraid to swim in the sea.
2. They saw the film Jaws.
1. It is about a big white shark.
2. It attacks swimmers.
1. I know the doctor.
2. His daughter studies abroad.
1. Have you seen my book?
2. The book’s cover is red.
1.Do you like the present __________I bought you yesterday?
2. The storybook _________was written by his uncle was quite interesting.
3. The boy ______ computer doesn’t work well needs your help.
4. This is the best movie _________ we have seen this year.
5. The doctor ______________ we met in the street is from America.
6. The passengers and the suitcases _____ were in the waiting room had to wait for another plane.
7. Who is the girl _________ you want to make friends with?
8. This is the last lesson ___________ Mr. Smith taught us.
1. I will never forget the day __________ I first went to school.
I will never forget the day __________ we spent in Beijing.
2. The house __________ we visited is being repaired now.
The house ______ Luxun once lived is being repaired now.
1.I am reading Harry Porter, _____is an interesting book.
2.He failed in the exam._______ made his parents angry.
3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry.
4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers.
5.He has two sons, both of ________ are teachers.
1. Do you like the book ___________________ she spent $10?
2. Do you like the book ___________________ she paid $10?
3. Do you like the book ___________________ she learned a lot?
4. Do you like the book___________________ she often talks?
1. I still remember the night _______I first came to the house.
2. I'll never forget the day________ we met each other last week.
3. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, _______is the best season there.
4. This is the school ______I used to study.
5. Do you still remember the place______ we visited last week?
6. Do you still remember the place_______ we visited the painting exhibition?
7. I live in Beijing,____is the capital of China.
8. There was a time ______there were slaves in the USA.
9. It was in the street _____I met John yesterday.
10. This is the very novel about____we've talked so much.
11. He lives in the room____window faces to the south.
12. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful place____you may spend your weekend.
1. ⑴ Tom is one of the boys who ____ (be) from the USA.
⑵ Tom is the only one of the boys who ____ (be) from the USA.
２. ⑴ Is this factory _____we visited last week?
⑵ Is this the factory _____we visited last week?
A. that B. whose C. who D. the one
３. ⑴ The old man did _____ he could to help the children.
⑵ The old man did all ____ he could to help the children.
A. what B. that C. all what D. which
4. (1) The room ____ window faces south is my sister’s.
(2) The room ____ faces south is my sister’s.
A. which B. whose C. who D. whom