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2021届高考英语一轮复习考点32阅读理解主旨大意题考点归纳
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2021届高考英语一轮复习考点32阅读理解主旨大意题考点归纳

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考点32  阅读理解主旨大意题

高考频度:★★★★★

高考阅读理解对文章的主旨大意进行命题,旨在考查考生通过对原文快速浏览正确

获取语篇的大意,并对文章的主题、标题、段落、中心思想加以归纳理解以及辨别主要信息和次要信息的能力。要求考生在阅读短文时,能够提炼文章的中心情节,体会作者的主要意图,充分运用逻辑概括能力,透过字里行间获取文章最具代表性的观点、中心论点及作者的情感倾向。

在高考阅读理解中,针对短文主旨常见的命题形式如下:

(1) What would be the best title for the text? /What is the topic of the text?

(2) The main topic / subject of the passage is _________.

(3) The main idea/ The general idea is/ The main theme of this passage is…

(4) The last paragraph ends the passage with an emphasis on _________.

(5) What is mainly discussed in the text?

(6) What is the main idea of the passage?

(7) What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph?

(8) The purpose of this passage is.

(9) Which of the following statements is best supported by the text?

(10) Which of the following best summarized the passage?

(11) The passage mainly focuses on.

从上述命题形式可以看出,此类阅读测试题主要可概括为两大类,即怎样理解段落及文章整体的中心思想和怎样拟定或选择恰当的标题。下面结合高考题实例来具体分析此类题目的解题技巧。

怎样理解段落及文章整体的主旨大意

——主题句定位法

文章是由段落组成的。段落是发展一个主题的一群句子,段落围绕着中心思想展开,而段落的中心思想又是为文章整体的中心思想服务的。寻找具体段落的中心思想的方法是:通过分析篇章结构,找出每小段的主题句,通过主题句找出文章的主题。找准文章的主题句是确定文章主旨大意的关键。主题是文章要表达的中心思想,文章的主题句通常都有一个话题,它是文章的核心。主题句定位法是一种行之有效的方法。

但是由于文章的不同,表现的手法也各有不同,主题句出现的位置也不是一成不变的。在许多情况下,尤其在阅读说明文和议论文时,根据其篇章特点我们可以通过寻找短文的主题句来归纳出文章的主题。主题句在文章中的位置通常有三种情况:开头、中间、结尾(含在开头结尾同时出现、首尾呼应的主题句)。因此,仔细阅读这类文章或段落的首尾句是关键。做主旨大意类试题多采用浏览法(skimming),浏览时,一般不需逐句细读,只选读文章的首段、尾段,或每段的首句和尾句,重点搜索主题线索和主题信息。

文章主题常常可以通过文章的写作方法来体现,有以下五种情况:

1. 中心主题句出现在文首

开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释、支撑或发展主题句所表达的主题思想。这是英语中最常见的演绎法写作方式,即由一般到特殊,先提出观点,后举例论证,主题句则出现在段首的写作方法。

新闻报道通常就采用这种写法。新闻报道的首句通常称为新闻导语导语实际上就是主题句,是对全文内容的高度概括。大意题、标题一般可在第一句话找到答题依据。

 

(2020·新课标III卷,C)    With the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation(孤独), more families are choosing to live together.

The doorway to peace and quiet, for Nick Bright at least, leads straight to his mother-in-law, she lives on the ground floor, while he lives upstairs with his wife and their two daughters.

Four years ago they all moved into a three-storey Victorian house in Bristol - one of a growing number of multigenerational families in the UK living together under the same roof. They share a front door and a washing machine, but Rita Whitehead has her own kitchen, bathroom, bedroom and living room on the ground floor.

“We floated the idea to my mum of sharing at a house,” says Kathryn Whitehead. Rita cuts in: “We spoke more with Nick because I think it’s a big thing for Nick to live with his mother-in-law.”

And what does Nick think? “From my standpoint, it all seems to work very well. Would I recommend it? Yes, I think I would.”

It’s hard to tell exactly how many people agree with him, but research indicates that the numbers have been rising for some time. Official reports suggest that the number of households with three generations living together had risen from 325,000 in 2001to 419,000 in 2013.

Other varieties of multigenerational family are more common. Some people live with their elderly parents; many more adult children are returning to the family home, if they ever left. It is said that about 20% of 25-34-year-olds live with their parents, compared with 16% in 1991.The total number of all multigenerational households in Britain is thought to be about 1.8 million.

Stories like that are more common in parts of the world where multigenerational living is more firmly rooted. In India, particularly outside cities, young women are expected to move in with their husband’s family when they get married.

31.What is the text mainly about?

A.Lifestyles in different countries. B.Conflicts between generations.

C.A housing problem in Britain. D.A rising trend of living in the UK.

【答案】31.D

【解析】31.主旨大意题。通读全文,尤其根据第一段“With the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation(孤独), more families are choosing to live together.”可知,由于年轻人负担不起离家的费用,而老年人又面临着被孤立的风险,越来越多的家庭选择住在一起。所以短文主要是关于英国生活方式的一种上升趋势。故选D项。

2. 主题句出现在文尾

在细节后,归纳要点、印象、结论、建议或结果,以概括主题。这是英语中最常见的归纳法写作方式,即细节表述的句子在前,概括性的句子居后,主题句则常位于末段。

 

(2020·新课标I卷,D) The connection between people and plants has long been the subject of scientific research. Recent studies have found positive effects. A study conducted in YoungstownOhiofor example, discovered that greener areas of the city experienced less crime. In anotheremployees were shown to be 15% more productive when their workplaces were decorated with houseplants.

The engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)have taken it a step further changing the actual composition of plants in order to get them to perform diverseeven unusual functions. These include plants that have sensors printed onto their leaves to show when they’re short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater. We’re thinking about how we can engineer plants to replace functions of the things that we use every day,explained Michael Strano, a professor of chemical engineering at MIT.

One of his latest projects has been to make plants glow(发光)in experiments using some common vegetables. Strano’s team found that they could create a faint light for three-and-a-half hours. The lightabout one-thousandth of the amount needed to read byis just a start. The technology, Strano said, could one day be used to light the rooms or even to turn trees into self-powered street lamps.

In the futurethe team hopes to develop a version of the technology that can be sprayed onto plant leaves in a one-off treatment that would last the plant’s lifetime. The engineers are also trying to develop an on and offswitchwhere the glow would fade when exposed to daylight.

Lighting accounts for about 7% of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source(电源)-such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway-a lot of energy is lost during transmission(传输).Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.

35.Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A.Can we grow more glowing plants?

B.How do we live with glowing plants?

C.Could glowing plants replace lamps?

D.How are glowing plants made pollution-free?

【答案】35.C

【解析】35.主旨大意题。根据最后一段中Lighting accounts for about 7%of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source-such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway-a lot of energy is lost during transmission. Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.可知照明约占美国总耗电量的7%。由于照明通常远离电源,例如从发电厂到偏僻公路上路灯的距离,在传输过程中会损失大量能源。发光的植物可以缩短这段距离,从而帮助节约能源。结合文章主要说明了绿色植物对人们很有好处,因此麻省理工学院的工程师开发了一种发光植物,文章介绍了他们发明这种植物的过程,以及这种植物的一些优势,指出在未来发光植物有可能取代路灯,达到节约能源的作用。由此可知,C选项“发光的植物能取代路灯吗?”最符合文章标题。故选C

 

Lacrosse (曲棍球) is a popular sport in Canada. The Indians in Canada invented it. They used it to train for war. They invented this game before Columbus arrived in the New World.

People play lacrosse outdoors. The lacrosse field is seven meters long. At each end of the field there is a goal. The goal is a net. There are ten players on each team. Each player has a stick called “ cross”. The player hit a ball into the net as many times as possible. Lacrosse is a very fast game because the players can catch and pass the ball at a high speed with their sticks. Players often get great fun it playing lacrosse.

There are many lacrosse clubs and lacrosse teams all over Canada. Every night Canadians can watch the lacrosse games on TV or listen to the lacrosse games over the radio.

At one time lacrosse was the national summer sport in Canada. Today it is still popular with Canadians.

1.The passage is mainly about ___________.

A. How to Play Lacrosse

B. Lacrosse in Canada

C. The History of Lacrosse

D. Lacrosse—A Popular Game in Canada

【答案】D

【解析】作者先后两次提到长曲棍球在加拿大很受欢迎,显然选项D最符合短文的主题。

4. 中心主题隐含在全文之中,没有明确的主题句

阅读这样的文章,就要求考生根据文章的细节来分析,概括出段落的主题,从而推导出文章的主旨。分析的方法是,先弄清该段落主要讲了哪几个方面的内容,这些内容在逻辑上有什么联系,然后加以归纳形成主题。该类型的试题则迎刃而解。

 

(2020·新课标II卷,D)  I have a special place in my heart for libraries. I have for as long as I can remember. I was always an enthusiastic reader, sometimes reading up to three books a day as a child. Stories were like air to me and while other kids played ball or went to parties, I lived out adventures through the books I checked out from the library.

My first job was working at the Ukiah Library when I was 16 years old .It was a dream job and I did everything from shelving books to reading to the children for story time.

As I grew older and became a mother, the library took on a new place and an added meaning in my life. I had several children and books were our main source(来源) of entertainment. It was a big deal for us to load up and go to the local library, where my kids could pick out books to read or books they wanted me to read to them.

I always read ,using different voices ,as though I were acting out the stories with my voice and they loved it !It was a special time to bond with my children and it filled them with the wonderment of books .

Now, I see my children taking their children to the library and I love that the excitement of going to the library lives on form generation to generation.

As a novelist, I’ve found a new relationship with libraries. I encourage readers to go to their local library when they can’t afford to purchase a book. I see libraries as a safe haven(避风港) for readers and writers, a bridge that helps put together a reader with a book. Libraries, in their own way, help fight book piracy(盗版行为) and 1 think all writers should support libraries in a significant way when they can. Encourage readers to use the library. Share library announcements on your social media. Frequent them and talk about them when you can.

35.Which can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Reading: A Source of Knowledge

B.My Idea about writing

C.Library: A Haven for the Young

D.My Love of the Library

【答案】35.D

【解析】35.主旨大意题。纵观全文可知,文章讲述了作者是一名热情地读者,孩提时喜欢阅读,工作在图书馆。有了孩子以后,一家人去图书馆读书,阅读的习惯代代传承下去,作为小说家,作者呼吁其他作家支持图书馆,宣传图书馆。因此推断全文围绕“作者对图书馆的爱”展开讲述。故D项“我对图书馆的爱”为最佳标题。故选D

4. 主题句出现在文章的中间

通常前面只提出问题,文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出,而后又作进一步的解释、支撑或发展。

 

The Sahara Festival is a celebration of the very recent past. The three-day event is not fixed to the same dates each year, but generally takes place in November or December. It is well attended by tourists, but even better attended by locals.

During the opening ceremonies, after the official greetings from the government leaders, people who attend the festival begin to march smartly before the viewing stands, and white camels transport their riders across the sands. Horsemen from different nations display their beautiful clothes and their fine horsemanship. One following another, groups of musicians and dancers from all over the Sahara take their turn to show off their wonderful traditional culture. Groups of men in blue and yellow play horns and beat drums as they dance in different designs. On their knees in the sand, a group of women in long dark dresses dance with their hair: their long, dark, shiny hair is thrown back and forth in the wind to the rhythm of their dance.

67. This passage mainly tells readers_______.

A. what happens on the opening day of the Sahara Festival

B. how people celebrate during the three-day Sahara Festival

C. what takes place at the closing ceremonies of the Sahara Festival

D. how animals race on the first and the last days of the Sahara Festival

【答案】A

【解析】从文中第二段第一句话During the opening ceremonies,”可以看出,本文主要是介绍撒哈拉节开幕式上的活动。答案选A

怎样给阅读文章整体加注标题

——高度概括法

对文章主旨大意的考察,不仅可以直接以理解段落及文章的主旨大意的形式出现,而且也可以用选择或拟定文章标题的形式出现。因此,选择文章标题,首先可以按照主旨大意的确定方式,先弄清文章的主旨大意,再定标题。

标题位于文章之首,用来高度概括文章内容,点明文章主题。它是段落中心思想最精练的表达形式。标题可帮助读者迅速推测出整篇文章的主要内容,抓住文章的中心,把握作者的观点和意图。那么如何选择文章的标题呢?

首先,要考虑标题对文章的概括性或覆盖面如何。一般要求能覆盖全文内容,体

现文章主旨。要避免下列三种情况:①概括不够(多表现为部分代整体,从而导致范围太小);②过度概括(多表现为脱离本文章内容的发挥);③以事实、细节替代抽象具体的大意。

其次,要考虑标题的针对性,即标题范围要恰当,针对性强。要在阅读原文的基础上,

仔细考虑所选标题与文章主题是否有密切的关系。既不能太大,也不能太小,太大则中心就不突出,太小也发挥不了应起的作用;精确度高,不能随意改变语言的表意程度及色彩。它可以是单词、短语,也可以是句子。

再次要注意标题的醒目性,标题的选择要简洁、突出、新颖,标题是文章的点睛之笔,是文章的灵魂和门面。标题的好坏往往影响了文章的可读性,读者常常从标题上决定文章的阅读取舍。故标题一般比较醒目,甚至比较离奇,以此来吸引读者对文章的兴趣。

最后要注意,要恰当地选好标题,还需要了解标题的基本拟定方法。一般说来,拟定标题是以话题为核心,与控制性概念的词按一定的语法浓缩为概括主题句或中心思想的词组。比如某一文章的中心句为:CHINA issued the first set of stamps depicting the top 128 Chinese family names on Thursday Nov. 18th 2004 in Beijing.

话题:Stamps

控制性概念:CHINA issued the first set of stamps depicting the top 128 Chinese family names

标题:China issued 1st set of stamps on family names

 

(2020·湖南高三二模)    I live in a small studio.I sleep in a bed that folds down from the wall.I have six dress shirts.I have 10 shallow bowls that I use for salads and main dishes.When people come over for dinner.I pull out my extendable dining room table.I don't have a single CD or DVD and I have 10 percent of the books I once did.

I have come a long way from the life I had in the late’90s,when,having made a fortune from an Internet start-up sale,I had a giant house full of stuff(物品)-electronics and cars and appliances and furniture.

Somehow this stuff ended up running my life,or a lot of it;the things I consumed ended up consuming me.My life became unnecessarily complicated.There were lawns(草坪)to mow,floors to mop,a car to insure,wash,refuel,repair and register and tech to set up and keep working.Who had I become?My house and my things were my new employers for a job I had never applied for.I started to wonder why my theoretically upgraded life didn't feel any better and why I felt more anxious than before.

For me,it took 15 years to get rid of the things I had collected and live a bigger,better,richer life with less.

I like material things as much as anyone.I studied product design in school.But my experiences show that after a certain point,material objects have a tendency to crowd out the emotional needs they are meant to support.I know the best stuff in life isn't stuff at all,and that relationships,experiences and meaningful work are the main parts of a happy life.

My latest project is to design thoughtfully constructed small homes that support our lives,not the other way around.The house 1 design contains less stuff and makes it easier for owners to live within their means and to limit their environmental footprint.My space is well-built,affordable and as functional as living spaces twice the size.I frequently have dinner parties for 12.I sleep better knowing I'm not using more resources than I need.I have less-and enjoy more.

My space is small.My life is big.

31.What is the best title for the text?

A.Living Better with Less

B.Consuming Less to Save Money

C.Longing for the Good Old Days

D.Building a Comfortable Living Space

【答案】31.A

【解析】31.主旨大意题。 本文主题为“简单生活使作者的生活更美好”( live a bigger, better, richer life with less) ,起始段、尾段以及中间各段落均围绕该主题展开叙述。故选A。

 

题组(2020年高考真题)

Passage1(2020·全国III,B)

    When “Rise of the Planet of the Apes” was first shown to the public last month, a group of excited animal activists gathered on Hollywood Boulevard. But they weren’t there to throw red paint on fur-coat-wearing film stars. Instead, one activist, dressed in a full-body monkey suit, had arrived with a sign praising the filmmakers: “Thanks for not using real apes ()!”

The creative team behind “Apes” used motion-capture (动作捕捉) technology to create digitalized animals, spending tens of millions of dollars on technology that records an actor’s performance and later processes it with computer graphics to create a final image (图像). In this case, one of a realistic-looking ape.

Yet “Apes” is more exception than the rule. In fact, Hollywood has been hot on live animals lately. One nonprofit organization, which monitors the treatment of animals in filmed entertainment, is keeping tabs on more than 2,000 productions this year. Already, a number of films, including “Water for Elephants,” “The Hangover Part Ⅱ” and “Zookeeper,” have drawn the anger of activists who say the creatures acting in them haven’t been treated properly.

In some cases, it’s not so much the treatment of the animals on set in the studio that has activists worried; it’s the off-set training and living conditions that are raising concerns. And there are questions about the films made outside the States, which sometimes are not monitored as closely as productions filmed in the States.

24.Why did the animal activists gather on Hollywood Boulevard?

A.To see famous film stars.

B.To oppose wearing fur coats.

C.To raise money for animal protection.

D.To express thanks to some filmmakers.

25.What does paragraph 2 mainly talk about?

A.The cost of making “Apes.”

B.The creation of digitalized apes.

C.The publicity about “Apes.”

D.The performance of real apes.

26.What does the underlined phrase “keeping tabs on” in paragraph 3 probably mean?

A.Listing completely.

B.Directing professionally.

C.Promoting successfully.

D.Watching carefully.

27.What can we infer from the last paragraph about animal actors?

A.They may be badly treated.

B.They should take further training.

C.They could be traded illegally

D.They would lose popularity.

Passage3 2020年浙江省高考英语试卷(1月)

    Today's world is not an easy adjustment for young adults. Key skill set for success is persistence (毅力), a characteristic that researchers say is heavily influenced by fathers. Researchers from Brigham Young University discovered that fathers are in a unique position to help their adolescent children learn persistence.

BYU professors Laura Padilla-Walker and Randal Day arrived at these findings after following 325 American families over several years. And over time,the persistence gained through fathers led to higher achievement in school.

"There are relatively few studies that stress the unique role of fathers,"Padilla-Walker said. "This research also helps to prove that characteristics such as persistence-which can be taught-are key to a child's life success.”

Researchers determined that dads need to practice an "authoritative" parenting style. Authoritative parenting is not authoritarian:rigid,demanding or controlling. Rather,an authoritative parenting style includes some of the following characteristics:children feel warmth and love from their father;responsibility and the reasons behind rules are stressed children are given an appropriate level of autonomy(自主权).

In the study,about 52 percent of the dads exhibited above-average levels of authoritative parenting. A key finding is that over time,children raised by an authoritative father were significantly more likely to develop persistence,which leads to better outcomes in school.

This particular study examined 11 to 14-year-olds living in two-parent homes. Yet the researchers suggest that single parents still may play a role in teaching the benefits of persistence,which is an avenue of future research.

27.What is special about the BYU professors' study?

A.It centered on fathers' role in parenting.

B.It was based on a number of large families.

C.It analyzed different kinds of parenting styles.

D.It aimed to improve kids' achievement in school.

28.What would an authoritative father do when raising his children?

A.Ignore their demands. B.Make decisions for them.

C.Control their behaviors. D.Explain the rules to them.

29.Which group can be a focus of future studies according to the researchers?

A.Single parents.

B.Children aged from 11 to 14.

C.Authoritarian fathers.

D.Mothers in two-parent homes.

30.Which of the following is the best title for the text?

A.Three Characteristics of Authoritative Fathers.

B.Key Skills for Young Adults to Succeed in Future.

C.Children Tend to Learn Determination from Father.

D.Family Relationship Influences School Performance.

Passage3(2020·全国IIID)

    We are the products of evolution, and not just evolution that occurred billions of years ago. As scientists look deeper into our genes (基因), they are finding examples of human evolution in just the past few thousand years. People in Ethiopian highlands have adapted to living at high altitudes. Cattle -raising people in East Africa and northern Europe have gained a mutation (突变) that helps them digest milk as adults.

On Thursday in an article published in Cell, a team of researchers reported a new kind of adaptation - not to air or to food, but to the ocean. A group of sea-dwelling people in Southeast Asia have evolved into better divers. The Bajau, as these people are known, number in the hundreds of thousands in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. They have traditionally lived on houseboats; in recent times, they’ve also built houses on stilts (支柱) in coastal waters. “They are simply a stranger to the land,” said Redney C.Jubilado, a University of Hawaii researcher who studies the Bajau.

Dr. Jubilado first met the Bajau while growing up on Samal Island in the Philippines. They made a living as divers, spearfishing or harvesting shellfish. “We were so amazed that they could stay underwater much longer than us local islanders,” Dr. Jubilado said. “I could see them actually walking under the sea.”

In2015, Melissa Ilardo, then a graduate student in genetics at the University of Copenhagen, heard about the Bajau. She wondered if centuries of diving could have led to the evolution of physical characteristics that made the task easier for them. “it seemed like the perfect chance for natural selection to act on a population,” said Dr. Ilardo. She also said there were likely a number of other genes that help the Bajau dive.

32.What does the author want to tell us by the examples in paragraph 1?

A.Environmental adaptation of cattle raisers. B.New knowledge of human evolution.

C.Recent findings of human origin. D.Significance of food selection.

33.Where do the Bajau build their houses?

A.In valleys. B.Near rivers. C.On the beach. D.Off the coast.

34.Why was the young Jubilado astonished at the Bajau?

A.They could walk on stilts all day. B.They had a superb way of fishing.

C.They could stay long underwater. D.They lived on both land and water.

35.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea B.Highlanders’ Survival Skills

C.Basic Methods of Genetic Research D.The World’s Best Divers

Passage4 2020年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)(7月)

    For people, who are interested in sound, the field of sound technology is definitely making noise. In the past, sound engineers worked in the back rooms of recording studios, but many of today’s sound professionals are sharing their knowledge and experience with professionals in other fields to create new products based on the phenomenon we call sound.

Sound can be used as a weapon. Imagine that a police officer is chasing a thief. The thief tries to escape. And the officer can’t let him get away. He pulls out a special device, points it at the suspect, and switches it on. The thief drops to the ground. This new weapon is called a Long Range Acoustic Device(LRAD, 远程定向声波发射器). It produces a deafening sound so painful that it temporarily disables a person. The noise from the LRAD is directed like a ray of light and travels only into the ears of that person, but it is not deadly.

For those who hunger for some peace and quiet, sound can now create silence. Let’s say you are at the airport, and the little boy on the seat next to you is humming(哼唱) a short commercial song. He hums it over and over again, and you are about to go crazy. Thanks to the Silence Machine, a British invention, you can get rid of the sound without upsetting the boy or his parents. One may wonder how the Silence Machine works. Well, it functions by analyzing the waves of the incoming sound and creating a second set of outgoing waves. The two sets of waves cancel each other out. Simply turn the machine or point it at the target, and your peace and quiet comes back.

Directed sound is a new technology that allows companies to use sound in much the same way spotlights(聚光灯) are used in the theater. A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly, “spotsound” creates a circle of sound in on targeted area. This can be useful for businesses such as restaurants and stores because it offers a new way to attract customers. Restaurants can offer a choice of music along with the various food choices on the menu, allowing customers more control over the atmosphere in which they are dining. Directed sound is also beginning to appear in shopping centers and even at homes.

46. What could be inferred from Paragraph 2 about the effect of the LRAD?

A. It causes temporary hearing loss.

B. It slows down a running man.

C. It makes it easy to identify a suspect.

D. It keeps the suspect from hurting others.

47. The Silence Machine is a device specially designed to ________.

A. silence the people around you

B. remove the sound of commercials

C. block the incoming sound waves

D. stop unwanted sound from affecting you

48. What feature do spotsounds and spotlights share?

A. They travel in circles.

B. They clear the atmosphere.

C. They can be transformed into energy.

D. They can be directed onto a specific area.

49. Directed sound can be used for ________.

A. creative designs of restaurant menus

B. ideal sound effects on the theater stage

C. different choices of music for businesses

D. strict control over any suspicious customer

50. What does the passage focus on?

A. How professionals invented sound products.

B. Inventions in the field of sound technology.

C. The growing interest in the study of sound.

D. How sound engineers work in their studios.

题组(2019年高考真题)

Passage1(2019·天津卷,B)

I must have always known reading was very important because the first memories I have as a child deal with books. There was not one night that I don't remember mom reading me a storybook by my bedside. I was extremely inspired by the elegant way the words sounded.

I always wanted to know what my mom was reading. Hearing mom say," I can't believe what's printed in the newspaper this morning," made me want to grab it out of her hands and read it myself. I wanted to be like my mom and know all of the things she knew. So I carried around a book, and each night, just to be like her, I would pretend to be reading.

This is how everyone learned to read. We would start off with sentences, then paragraphs, and then stories. It seemed an unending journey, but even as a six-year-old girl I realized that knowing how to read could open many doors. When mom said," The C-A-N-D-Y is hidden on the top shelf," I knew where the candy was. My progress in reading raised my curiosity, and I wanted to know everything. I often found myself telling my mom to drive more slowly, so that I could read all of the road signs we passed.

Most of my reading through primary, middle and high school was factual reading. I read for knowledge, and to make A's on my tests. Occasionally, I would read a novel that was assigned, but I didn't enjoy this type of reading. I liked facts, things that are concrete. I thought anything abstract left too much room for argument.

Yet, now that I'm growing and the world I once knew as being so simple is becoming more complex, I find myself needing a way to escape. By opening a novel, I can leave behind my burdens and enter into a wonderful and mysterious world where I am now a new character. In these worlds I can become anyone. I don't have to write down what happened or what technique the author was using when he or she wrote this. I just read to relax.

We're taught to read because it's necessary for much of human understanding. Reading is a vital part of my life. Reading satisfies my desire to keep learning. And I've found that the possibilities that lie within books are limitless.

41. Why did the author want to grab the newspaper out of mom's hands

A. She wanted mom to read the news to her.

B. She was anxious to know what had happened.

C. She couldn't wait to tear the newspaper apart.

D. She couldn't help but stop mom from reading.

42. According to Paragraph 3the author's reading of road signs indicates___________

A. her unique way to locate herself

B. her eagerness to develop her reading ability

C. her effort to remind mom to obey traffic rules

D. her growing desire to know the world around her.

43. What was the author's view on factual reading

A. It would help her update test-taking skills.

B. It would allow much room for free thinking.

C. It would provide true and objective information.

D. It would help shape a realistic and serious attitude to life.

44. The author takes novel reading as a way to___________.

A. explore a fantasy land

B. develop a passion for leaning

C. learn about the adult community

D. get away from a confusing world

45. What could be the best title for the passage

A. The Magic of Reading      B. The Pleasure of Reading

C. Growing Up with Reading     D. Reading Makes a Full Man

Passage2(201新课标卷I,D)

During the rosy years of elementary school(小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself.

Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior.

Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are “most likely to engage(从事)in dangerous and risky behavior.”

In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys(调查研究). “We found that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us."

Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others.

In analyzing his and other researchDr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage, ” he said.

32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school?

A. Unkind. B. Lonely. C. Generous. D. Cool.

33. What is the second paragraph mainly about

A. The classification of the popular.

B. The characteristics of adolescents.

C. The importance of interpersonal skills.

D. The causes of dishonorable behavior

34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids?

A. They appeared to be aggressive.

B. They tended to be more adaptable.

C. They enjoyed the highest status.

D. They performed well academically.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. Be Nice-You Won’t Finish Last

B. The Higher the Status, the Beer

C. Be the Best-You Can Make It

D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness

Passage3(201新课标卷II,D)

Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms(微生物) from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It depending on NASA HUNCH high school class, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York.

HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they’re close to a solution(解决方案). “We don’t give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,” says Florence Gold, a project manager.

“There are no tests,” Gordon says. “There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other thanAre you working towards your goal? Basically, it’s I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of year, present it to NASA. Engineers come and really do an in-person review, andit’s not a very nice thing at time. It’s a hard business review of your product.”

Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact(影响) on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don’t teach.” And that annoying bacteria? Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space.

32. What do we know about the bacteria in the International Space Station?

A. They are hard to get rid of. B. They lead to air pollution.

C. They appear different forms. D. They damage the instruments.

33. What is the purpose of the HUNCH program?

A. To strengthen teacher-student relationships. B. To sharpen students’ communication skills.

C. To allow students to experience zero gravity. D. To link space technology with school education

34. What do the NASA engineers do for the students in the program?

A. Check their product. B. Guide project designs

C. Adjust work schedules. D. Grade their homework.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. NASA: The Home of Astronauts.

B. Space: The Final Homework Frontier.

C. Nature: An Outdoor Classroom.

D. HUNCH:A College Admission Reform.

Passage4(2019·北京卷,C)

The problem of robocalls has gotten so bad that many people now refuse to pick up calls from numbers they don't know. By next yearhalf of the calls we receive will be scams(欺诈).We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of toolsapps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunatelyit's too littletoo late. By the time these “solutions"(解决方案)become widely availablescammers will have moved onto cleverer means. In the near futureit's not just going to be the number you see on your screen that will be in doubt. Soon you will also question whether the voice you're hearing is actually real.

That's because there are a number of powerful voice manipulation ( 处理 ) and automation technologies that are about to become widely available for anyone to use .At this year's I/O Conference ,a company showed a new voice technology able to produce such a convincing human –sounding voice that it was able to speak to a receptionist and book a reservation without detection.

These developments are likely to make our current problems with robocalls much worse. The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision A decade of data breaches(数据侵入)of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mother 's name and far more. Armed with  this  knowledge. they're able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means. for examplethat a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank teller 'sricking you into "confirming " your addressmother's nameand card number. Scammers follow moneyso companies will be the worst hit. A lot of business is still done over the phoneand much of it is based on trust and existing relationships. Voice manipulation technologies may weaken that gradually.

We need to deal with the insecure nature of our telecom networks. Phone carriers and consumers need to work together to find ways of determining and communicating what is real. That might mean either developing a uniform way to mark videos and images, showing when and who they were made by. or abandoning phone calls altogether and moving towards data-based communications—using apps like Face Time or WhatsApp, which can be tied to your identity.

Credibility is hard to earn but easy to lose, and the problem is only going to harder from here on out.

38. How does the author feel about the solutions to problem of robecalls?

A. Panicked. B. Confused. C. Embarrassed. D. Disappointed.

39. taking advantage of the new technologiesscammer can______.

A. aim at victims precisely B. damage databases easily

C. start campaigns rapidly D. spread  information widely

40. What does the passage imply?

A. Honesty is the best policy.

B. Technologies can be double-edited.

C. There are more solutions than problems.

D. Credibility holds the key to development.

41. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

A. Where the Problem of Robocalls Is Rooted

B. Who Is to Blame for the Problem of Roboealls

C. Why Robocalls Are About to Get More Dangerous

D. How Robocalls Are Affecting the World of Technology

 

题组(2018年高考真题)

Passage1(201新课标卷I,B)

Good Morning Britain’s Susanna Reid is used to grilling guests on the sofa every morning, but she is cooking up a storm in her latest role showing families how to prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget.

In Save Money: Good Food, she visits a different home each week and with the help of chef Matt Tebbutt offers top tips on how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day. And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s leant into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11.

"We love Mexican churros, so I buy them on my phone from my local Mexican takeaway restaurant," she explains. "I pay £5 for a portion(一份), but Matt makes them for 26p a portion, because they are flour, water, sugar and oil. Everybody can buy takeaway food, but sometimes we’re not aware how cheaply we can make this food ourselves. "

The eight-part series(系列节目), Save Money: Good Food, follows in the footsteps of ITV’s Save Money: Good Health, which gave viewers advice on how to get value from the vast range of health products on the market.

With food our biggest weekly household expense, Susanna and Matt spend time with a different family each week. In tonight’s Easter special they come to the aid of a family in need of some delicious inspiration on a budget. The team transforms the family’s long weekend of celebration with less expensive but still tasty recipes.

24. What do we know about Susanna Reid?

A. She enjoys embarrassing her guests.     B. She has started a new programme.

C. She dislikes working early in the morning.     D. She has had a tight budget for her family.

25. How does Matt Tebbutt help Susanna?

A. He buys cooking materials for her.     B. He prepares food for her kids.

C. He assists her in cooking matters.      D. He invites guest families for her.

26. What does the author intend to do in paragraph 4?

A. Summarize the previous paragraphs.     B. Provide some advice for the readers.

C. Add some background information.     D. Introduce a new topic for discussion.

27. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Keeping Fit by Eating Smart      B. Balancing Our Daily Diet

C. Making yourself a Perfect Chef      D. Cooking Well for Less

Passage2(201新课标卷II,D)

We’ve all been there: in a lift, in line at the bank or on an airplane, surrounded by people who are, like us, deeply focused on their smartphones or, worse, struggling with the uncomfortable silence.

 What’s the problem? It’s possible that we all have compromised conversational intelligence. It’s more likely that none of us start a conversation because it’s awkward and challenging, or we think it’s annoying and unnecessary. But the next time you find yourself among strangers, consider that small talk is worth the trouble. Experts say it’s an invaluable social practice that results in big benefits.

 Dismissing small talk as unimportant is easy, but we can’t forget that deep relationships wouldn’t

even exist if it weren’t for casual conversation. Small talk is the grease(润滑剂) for social communication, says Bernardo Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. Almost every great love story and each big business deal begins with small talk, he explains. The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them.

In a 2014 study, Elizabeth Dunn, associate professor of psychology at UBC, invited people on their way into a coffee shop. One group was asked to seek out an interaction(互动) with its waiter; the other, to speak only when necessary. The results showed that those who chatted with their server reported significantly higher positive feelings and a better coffee shop experience. It’s not that talking to the waiter is better than talking to your husband, says Dunn. But interactions with peripheral(边缘的) members of our social network matter for our well-being also.

Dunn believes that people who reach out to strangers feel a significantly greater sense of belonging, a bond with others. Carducci believes developing such a sense of belonging starts with small talk. Small talk is the basis of good manners, he says.

32. What phenomenon is described in the first paragraph?

A. Addiction to smartphones.

B. Inappropriate behaviours in public places.

C. Absence of communication between strangers.

D. Impatience with slow service.

33. What is important for successful small talk according to Carducci?

A. Showing good manners.       B. Relating to other people.

C. Focusing on a topic.       D. Making business deals.

34. What does the coffee-shop study suggest about small talk?

A. It improves family relationships.     B. It raises people’s confidence.

C. It matters as much as a formal talk.    D. It makes people feel good.

35. What is the best title for the text?

A. Conversation Counts       B. Ways of Making Small Talk

C. Benefits of Small Talk       D. Uncomfortable Silence

Passage3(201新课标卷III,B)

Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000.

Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.

But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762.

24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City?

A. Its business culture.

B. Its small population.

C. Its geographical position.

D. Its favourable climate.

25. What do we know about those who first dug for gold in Dawson?

A. Two-thirds of them stayed there.

B. One out of five people got rich.

C. Almost everyone gave up.

D. Half of them died.

26. What was the main reason for many people to leave Dawson?

A. They found the city too crowded.

B. They wanted to try their luck elsewhere.

C. They were unable to stand the winter.

D. They were short of food.

27. What is the text mainly about?

A. The rise and fall of a city.

B. The gold rush in Canada.

C. Journeys into the wilderness.

D. Tourism in Dawson.

Passage4(2018·北京卷,A)

My First Marathon(马拉松)

A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.

I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic".

The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of wills!

The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn’t even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.

Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces(鞋带) became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!

At mile 3, I passed a sign: "GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!"

By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.

By mile 21, I was starving!

As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.

I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.

Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner".

36. A month before the marathon, the author ____________.

A. was well trained         B. felt scared

C. made up his mind to run        D. lost hope

37. Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?

A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.

B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.

C. To show he was not talented in sports.

D. To share a precious memory.

38. How was the author’s first marathon?

A. He made it.          B. He quit halfway.

C. He got the first prize.        D. He walked to the end.

39. What does the story mainly tell us?

A. A man owes his success to his family support.

B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.

C. Failure is the mother of success.

D. One is never too old to learn.

题组(名校模拟题)

Passage 1(2020·重庆高三开学考试)   

At the World Economic Forum last month, President Trump drew claps when he announced the United States would respond to the forum's proposal to plant one trillion(万亿) trees to fight climate change. The trillion-tree idea won wide attention last summer after a study published in the journal Science concluded that planting so many trees was “the most effective climate change solution to date”.

If only it were true. But it isn't. Planting trees would slow down the planet's warming, but the only thing that will save us and future generations from paying a huge price in dollars, lives and damage to nature is rapid and considerable reductions in carbon release from fossil fuels, to net zero by 2050.

Focusing on trees as the big solution to climate change is a dangerous diversion(偏离). Worse still, it takes attention away from those responsible for the carbon release that are pushing us toward disaster. For example, in the Netherlands, you can pay Shell an additional 1 euro cent for each liter of regular gasoline you put in your tank, to plant trees to balance the carbon release from your driving. That's clearly no more than disaster slightly delayed. The only way to stop this planet from overheating is through political, economic, technological and social solutions that end the use of fossil fuels.

There is no way that planting trees, even across a global area the size of the United States, can absorb the huge amounts of fossil carbon released from industrial societies. Trees do take up carbon from the atmosphere as they grow. But this uptake merely replaces carbon lost when forests were cleared in the first place, usually long ago. Regrowing forests where they once grew can undo some damage done in the past, but even a trillion trees can't store enough carbon to head off dramatic climate changes this century.

In a sharp counter argument to last summer's Paper in Science, Justin Gillis wrote in the same journal in October that the study's findings were inconsistent with the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. He warned that “the claim that global tree restoration(复原) is our most effective climate solution is simply scientifically incorrect and dangerously misleading”.

1.What do we know about the trillion-tree idea?

A.It was published in a journal.

B.It was proposed last summer.

C.It was put forward by Trump.

D.It drew lots of public attention.

2.What is paragraph 3 mainly about?

A.A drawback of the tree planting strategy.

B.An example of balancing carbon release.

C.An anecdote of making a purchase at Shell.

D.A responsibility for politicians and economists.

3.What was Justin Gillis's attitude towards global tree restoration?

A.Indifferent. B.Opposed.

C.Hesitant. D.Supportive.

4.What is the best title for the text?

A.Contradictory Ideas on Tree Planting.

B.A Trillion Trees Come to the Rescue.

C.Planting Trees Won't Save the World.

D.The Best Solution to Climate Change.

Passage 22020·天津和平耀华中学高三一模)   

Spending over a year in the bleak (荒凉的) Antarctica might change your brain for the worse, according to new research out this month. It seems to show that polar explorers who lived for 14 months at an Antarctica research station experienced brain shrinkage, likely as a result of their loneliness and boredom.

The study’s authors used MRI (核磁共振) to scan the brains of eight members of a team before they began a long stay at the German-run research station. During their mission. the team periodically took tests of their cognition and memory and provided blood samples that allowed the study authors to measure their levels of a protein important for brain health called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). When they returned, they had their brains scanned again.

Finally, compared to themselves before the mission, the explorers' brains appeared to have less grey matter on average. The shrinkage was most apparent in the hippocampus, in area of the brain key to memory and cognition. Their average levels of BDNF also dropped during the trip and didn’t improve significantly even after one-and-a-half months back home.

The study's findings, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aren't the first to suggest that long time of being separated can change the brain. But practically all of this work has involved animals, according to the researchers.

Of course, an eight-person study is small, so any of its conclusions should be taken with caution. Lead author Alexander C.Stahn, now a researcher at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, said that the effects on the hippocampus are likely temporary, provided the scientists returned back to a life filled with social interaction and interesting things to see.

Still, since people will continue traveling to and from Antarctica for long periods of time, the findings are definitely worth keeping in mind and exploring further. They might even prove relevant for the rare few people who might travel as far as Mars in the future — perhaps the only similarly scientific, months-long mission that would be even more lonely.

1.What will do damage to the brain according to the first paragraph?

A.Doing research in brain shrinkage B.Traveling to the Antarctica.

C.Working as a researcher in a station. D.Being in a lonely place for a long time.

2.How did the scientists get the conclusion?

A.By comparing the scanned results. B.By studying the previous figures.

C.By making a long-term program. D.By scanning the participants’ brains.

3.What can we infer about the explorers when they returned?

A.They were no longer used to the civilized world.

B.They had some difficulty in remembering things.

C.They became normal after one-and-a-half months.

D.They published their findings in a medical magazine.

4.What can we learn about the study?

A.The scientists are provided with various social activities.

B.Long time of being separated can change the brain of all animals.

C.Other researches have the same findings as the study.

D.Its conclusion may be relevant for those who arc fond of travelling.

5.What is the last paragraph mainly about?

A.The importance of the finding. B.The disadvantage of the finding.

C.The future development of the space. D.The possibility of travelling to Mars.

Passage 3(2020·哈尔滨市第一中学校高三开学考试)   

Kevin Randall, a teacher,who teaches biology at Grandville High School,runs the environmental club at the high school,which has around 2,000 students.The club is known as the GHS Green Team,and it aims to raise awareness among students and teachers about sustainability(持续性).It also works on projects to reduce the environmental footprint of the building itself.

One of the club's recent projects focused on reducing waste in the school cafeteria.Randall said their cafeteria supervisor told them that the school went through 54,000 plastic forks every year.The club applied for a financial help,built recycling centers for the cafeteria,and purchased metal silverware.

And now every student uses a durable metal fork or a spoon instead of disposables.(一次性用品),“and that's just one way we're trying to capture the low-hanging fruit,if you will,"Randall said.

The efforts of Randall and his students have earned Grandville High School the Michigan Green School certification from the state.In addition to their work reducing waste in the cafeteria, the GHS Green Team has also built a garden with flowers and vegetables on campus,and leads cleanups on site and out in the community.Over the years,Randall and his students have also been working on raising money to install solar panels(太阳能板) on the roof of the high school.

Randall said he was motivated to take the lead on environmental issues for his school because he wanted his students to have someone to turn to in the building who understands what's at stake(利害攸关)when it comes to climate change.

And I also felt like I needed to do more in my life for my own two children at home," Randall added,"They need to know that their dad is working as hard as he can to reduce the effects of climate change,and to spread the word,and to make sure that other students out there are learning about this just the way they are at home."

1.What is the purpose of the GHS Green Team club?

A.To inspire students' love for biology.

B.To finish the projects assigned by school.

C.To prepare students for their future jobs.

D.To promote environmental protection.

2.What's the result of the project on school cafeteria?

A.It has changed the outlook of the cafeteria.

B.Students can have more fruits in the cafeteria.

C.Plastic forks are no longer used in the cafeteria.

D.The school has become famous nationwide.

3.What's the fourth paragraph mainly about?

A.The classification of the projects.

B.The characteristics of the club.

C.The activities organized by the club.

D.The future of the club.

4.What was Randall's aim by doing the work on environmental issues?.

A.To educate the young.

B.To get material rewards.

C.To amuse his children.

D.To make himself famous.

Passage 4(2020·湖南高三二模)   

Fathers have a strong influence on their children. And one of the areas in which researchers look for the influence is in the development of language. What begins with gestures and sounds develops into competence with language by around age 3.Fathers are proving to be an important part of this process, as Lynne Vernon-Feagans of the University of North Carolina and her colleagues are finding out.

They have done some of the most interesting work looking at children's language development in both middle-class and poor, rural families. They've found, to their surprise, that not only are fathers important for children’s language development, but that fathers matter more than mothers. For example, they found that fathers' use of vocabulary when reading picture books to their children at 6 months of age was significantly related to the children's expressiveness at 15 months and use of advanced language at age 3.This held true no matter what the mother's educational level was or how she spoke to the children.

Vernon-Feagans was surprised by the difference between mothers and fathers. She had thought they would be equally involved in encouraging their children’s language development. Why would fathers be more important in this regard than mothers? Maybe it's because mothers are more familiar with their kids, typically spending more time with them than fathers do. That makes mothers more likely to choose words the kids know. Fathers aren't as familiar with their kids,so they use a broader vocabulary, and the kids learn new words and concepts as a result.

Vernon-Feagans thought there might be another factor at play as well. Because fathers usually spend less time with their kids, they are more of a novelty. That makes them more interesting playmates. “I do think our children see it as very special when they do book reading with their fathers,” she said. “They may listen more and acquire language in a special way.”

The researchers found that wealthier fathers produced a greater rise in their children’s IQs than did similarly active low-income fathers. It might sound discouraging, but it suggests that improving men's educational or financial status would bring benefits not only to them but to their children as well.

1.What did Vernon-Feagans and her colleagues find unexpectedly in their research?

A.Mothers' improper ways to talk to children.

B.Fathers' important role in children's language.

C.Children’s use of advanced language at age 3.

D.Different vocabulary in different families.

2.What might make mothers a less important role in children’s language development?

A.Use of new words.

B.Familiarity with words.

C.Use of limited vocabulary.

D.Too much time with children.

3.What does the underlined“ a novelty” in Paragraph 4 indicate?

A.Fathers cannot afford the time with their kids.

B.Kids often complain about their fathers' absence.

C.It is quite common that fathers stay with their kids.

D.It feels new and different for kids to stay with their fathers.

4.What is the main idea of the text?

A.Fathers' social status benefits children's language.

B.Parents have different influences on children's language.

C.Children’s language abilities depend on good fathering.

D.Fathers contribute more than mothers to children's language.

 

题组一

Passage1(2020·全国III,B)

【答案】 24.D  25.B  26.D  27.A

【解析】这是一篇新闻报道。短文报道了电影“猩球崛起”上个月首次与公众见面。动物爱好者聚集在好莱坞前,感谢电影制作者,在电影拍摄时,没有使用真的类人猿。现在的动物拍摄使用的是数字化人猿的创造技术,而一些电影的拍摄却存在着虐地动物的现象,这让一个非盈利的组织密切关注此事。但有些拍摄也是不能够被监测到的。

24.

细节理解题。根据第一段“Instead, one activist ,dressed in a full -body monkey suit ,had arrived with a sign praising the filmmakers:Thanks for not using real apes”可知,相反,一名身穿全套猴服的活动人士来到现场,手里拿着一块牌子,称赞电影制作人:“感谢你们不用真正的猿猴。所以动物保护者聚集在好莱坞大道是为了向电影制作者表示感谢。故选D项。

25.

主旨大意题。根据第二段“The creative team behind "Apes" used motion-capture (动作捕捉) technology to create digitalized animals, spending tens of millions of dollars on technology that I records an actors performance and later processes it with computer graphics to create a final image (图像). ”可知,“人猿”背后的创作团队利用动作捕捉技术创造数字化的动物,在记录演员表演的技术上,花费数千万美元,然后用电脑图形处理,以产生最终的影像。由此可知,第二段主要是关于数字化人猿的创造。故选B项。

26.

词句猜测题。根据第三段划线前的句子“One nonprofit organization, which monitors the treatment or animals in filmed entertainment”(一个非营利组织,监控动物在电影娱乐中的待遇)以及下文Already, a number of films, including "Water for Elephants," "The Hangover Part " and "Zookeeper," have drawn the anger of activists who say the creatures acting in them havent been treated properly.(许多电影,包括“大象的眼泪”,“宿醉Ⅱ”和“管理员”,引起了动物保护人士的愤怒,他们说影片中的动物没有遭到很好的对待。)由此可知,其中一家监控动物待遇的非营利组织,今年正密切关注着2000多部影片。由此判断出,划线词的意思是“密切关注”。故选D项。

27.

推理判断题。根据最后一段In some cases, its not so much the treatment of the animals on set in the studio that has activists worried; its the off-set training and living conditions that are raising concerns. And there are questions about the films made outside the States, which sometimes are not monitored as closely as productions filmed in the Sates.”(在某些情况下,让活动人士担心的并不是电影棚里对动物的待遇;让人担忧的是训练和生活条件。还有一些关于在美国以外拍摄的电影的问题,这些电影有时不像在美国拍摄的电影那样受到严密的监控。)可知,在某些情况下,让活动人士担心的并不是工作室里动物的待遇;令人担忧的是训练和生活条件。由此判断出动物演员可能受到虐待。故选A项。

Passage3 2020年浙江省高考英语试卷(1月)

【答案】27.A 28.D  29.A  30.C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。研究人员发现,父亲在帮助青春期的孩子学习毅力方面具有独特的地位。研究人员认为,父亲们需要采用一种“权威”的养育方式,且一项重要的发现是,随着时间的推移,由权威父亲抚养长大的孩子更有可能培养出坚持不懈的精神,从而在学校取得更好的成绩。

27.细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句Researchers from Brigham Young University discovered that fathers are in a unique position to help their adolescent children learn persistence.(杨百翰大学的研究人员发现,父亲在帮助青春期的孩子学习毅力方面具有独特的地位)可知杨百翰大学研究的特别之处在于,它关注的是父亲在养育子女中的角色。故选A。

28.推理判断题。根据第四段中Rather,an authoritative parenting style includes some of the following characteristics: children feel warmth and love from their father;responsibility and the reasons behind rules are stressed children are given an appropriate level of autonomy.(相反,权威的养育方式包括以下一些特征:孩子们感受到来自父亲的温暖和爱;强调责任和规则背后的原因;孩子们被给予适当的自主权)可知一个有权威的父亲在抚养孩子时会向他们解释规则。故选D。

29.细节理解题。根据最后一段最后一句Yet the researchers suggest that single parents still may play a role in teaching the benefits of persistence,which is an avenue of future research.(然而,研究人员认为,单亲父母仍然可能在教授坚持不懈的好处方面发挥作用,这是未来研究的一个方向)可知根据研究人员的说法,单亲父母是未来研究的重点。故选A。

30.主旨大意题。根据文章倒数第二段中A key finding is that over time,children raised by an authoritative father were significantly more likely to develop persistence,which leads to better outcomes in school.(一项重要的发现是,随着时间的推移,由权威父亲抚养长大的孩子更有可能培养出坚持不懈的精神,从而在学校取得更好的成绩)和文章主要内容为说明父亲在养育子女中的角色,故选C选项“孩子们倾向于向父亲学习决心”最符合文章标题。故选C。

Passage3(2020·全国IIID)

【答案】32.B  33.D  34.C  35.A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。最近一项对人类基因的研究发现,人类的进化不仅仅发生在数十亿年前,而且最近几千年也有。Bajau人因为靠海为生,他们的身体已经进化成更能适应海洋生活。

32.推理判断题。根据第一段的we are the products of evolution, and not just evolution that occurred billions of years ago. As scientists look deeper into our genes, they are finding examples of human evolution in just the past few thousand years.(我们是进化的产物,而且不仅仅是数十亿年前的产物。当科学家更深入的研究我们的基因时,他们发现了人类在过去几千年进化的例子)可知,作者列举第一段的例子是为了告诉我们关于人类进化的一个新信息,那就是人类在最近几千年也在进化。B. New knowledge of human evolution.(人类进化的新知识)符合以上说法,故选B项。

33.细节理解题。根据第二段的The Bajau, as these people are known, number in hundreds of thousands in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. They have traditionally live on houseboats; in recent times, they've also built houses on stilts in coastal waters.(这些人被称为Bajau,在印度尼西亚、马来西亚和菲律宾有数十万人。他们一直住在船屋上;最近他们也把房子建在沿海水域的吊脚楼上)可知,Bajau把房子建在沿海区域。D. Off the coast.(沿海)符合以上说法,故选D项。

34.细节理解题。根据第三段的we were so amazed that they could stay underwater much longer than us local islanders.(我们很惊讶,他们在水下待的时间比我们当地的岛民要长的多)可知,让Jubilado感到吃惊的是Bajau人能在水下待更长的时间。C. They could stay long underwater. (他们能在水下待很长时间)符合以上说法,故选C项。

35.主旨大意题。根据文章的主要内容,尤其是第二段的On Thursday in an article published in Cell, a team of researchers reported a new kind of adaption-not to air or to food, but to the ocean.(周四,在《细胞》杂志上发表的一篇文章中,一群研究人员报道了一种新的适应——不是空气也不是食物,而是海洋)可知,本文主要讲述了一种新的进化,即长期生活在海边,靠海为生的生活方式,让Bajau人的身体进化成更适应海洋生活。A. Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea.(身体为适应海洋生活而重塑)可以作为本文标题,故选A项。

Passage4 2020年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)(7月)

【答案】46. A  47. D  48. D  49. C  50. B

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一些声音技术领域的发明创造,包括声音可以用作武器的远程声学设备、用来阻止有害声音影响你的静音机以及定向音响技术。

46. 推理判断题。根据第二段中的“It produces a deafening sound so painful that it temporarily disables a person. The noise from the LRAD is directed like a ray of light and travels only into the ears of that person, but it is not deadly.”可知它发出震耳欲聋的声音,这种声音令人如此痛苦以至于它会使人暂时丧失能力。LRAD发出的噪音像光线一样被引导,只进入那个人的耳朵,但不会致命。由此可推知,LRAD会导致暂时性听力损失。故选A。

47. 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“Well, it functions by analyzing the waves of the incoming sound and creating a second set of outgoing waves. The two sets of waves cancel each other out. Simply turn the machine on point it at the target, and your peace and quiet comes back.”可知,它的功能是通过分析传入声音的波,并产生第二组传出的波。这两组波会相互抵消。只要打开机器对准目标,你的宁静就会回来。由此可知,静音机是一种专门设计用来阻止有害声音影响你的设备。故选D。

48. 细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly, a “spotsound” creates a circle of sound in one targeted area.”可知,聚光灯只能照亮舞台的一个部分;类似地,一个“spotsound”在一个目标区域创建一个声音圈。由此可知,spotsounds和聚光灯的共同特性是它们可以被定向到一个特定的区域,故选D。

49. 细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly,”spotsound” creates a circle of sound in on targeted area. This can be useful for businesses such as restaurants and stores because it offers a new way to attract customers. Restaurants can offer a choice of music along with the various food choice on the menu, allowing customers more control over the atmosphere in which they are dining.”可知,聚光灯只能照亮舞台的一个部分;类似地,一个”spotsound”在一个目标区域创建一个声音圈。这对餐馆和商店等企业很有用,因为它提供了一种吸引顾客的新方式。餐厅可以提供音乐选择与菜单上的各种食物选择,让顾客更多地控制气氛,在他们用餐。由此可知,定向音响可以用于不同的商业音乐选择。故选C。

50. 主旨大意题。根据第一段中的“In the past, sound engineers worked in the back rooms of recording studios, but many of today's sound professionals are sharing their knowledge and experience with professionals in other fields to create new products based on the phenomenon we call sound.”可知,在过去,音响工程师在录音室的后室工作,但今天的许多音响专业人士正在与其他领域的专业人士分享他们的知识和经验,以我们所谓的声音现象为基础创造新产品。结合下文具体内容可知,本文着重论述了声音技术领域的发明创造。故选B。

 

题组

Passage1

【语篇解读】本文为夹叙夹议文,作者讲述了自己的读书经历和感悟。

41.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段主题句I always wanted to know what my mom was reading.Hearing mom say made me want to grab it out of her hands and read it myself可知,作者一直想知道妈妈在读什么。作者抢过妈妈读的报纸,因为作者自己迫切想看一看报纸上写的内容,故选B

42. D【解析】推理判断题。根据第三段My progress in reading raised my curiosity, and I wanted to know everything,可以推断出,让妈妈开车开慢一点,他能够读出所有路标,正是作者在阅读方面的进步引起了他的好奇心,想要了解周围的一切,故选D

43.C  【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段第一句Most of my reading through primary, middle and high school was factual reading. I read for knowledge, and to make As on my test.可知,小学和中学阶段的阅读都是事实性阅读,读书是为了获取知识,考试得A。因此事实性阅读能够提供真实的客观的信息,故选 C

44. D 【解析】细节理解题。根据第五段By opening a novel, I can leave behind my burdens and enter into a wonderful and mysterious world where I am now a new character. In these worlds I can become anyone.( 打开一本小说,我可以摆脱我的负担,进入一个奇妙而神秘的世界,我现在是一个新的角色。在这个世界上,我可以成为任何人。) 可知,阅读小说可以让作者避开复杂的现实而投入到小说中的世界中去,故选D

45.C  

【解析】主旨大意题。根据上下文可知,作者以时间顺序回忆了自己的阅读经历和感悟,伴着阅读成长,故选项C符合题意。

Passage2

语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要讲到研究表明,对别人好,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。

32.C  【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段During the rosy years of elementary school, I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status(在美好的小学时光里,我喜欢分享我的娃娃和笑话,这让我保持了高高的社会地位。)由此推断出,作者在小学早期时,是一个慷慨的女孩。unkind不友善的;lonely寂寞的;generous慷慨的;cool冷静的,故选C

33.A 【解析】段落大意题。第二段Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers.(临床心理学教授Mitch Prinstein将受欢迎的人分为两类:讨人喜欢的人和追求地位的人。)是段落主题句,本段内容分别对the likable the status seekers 做了解释,所以本段主要介绍了两种受欢迎的分类,故选A

34.B 【解析】推理判断题。根据第四段It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment (它清楚地表明,可爱可以促使健全的调整),由此推断出,心理学教授Mitch Prinstein的研究表明,最有人望的孩子适应性更强,故选B

35.A

【解析】标题归纳题。通过阅读全文内容,尤其是最后一段,可知这篇文章主要讲了受欢迎,讨人喜欢对人生活的各个方面有深远的有益影响。与选项A“对别人好——最终,你的收获无穷无尽”一致,故选A

Passage3

语篇解读】本文为说明文。本文介绍了HUNCH项目就是通过Gordon的学生找到如何杀死空间站的细菌这一技术,把空间技术与带进课堂,与学校教育相结合,从而最终影响到大学入学。

32.A  解析细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Bacteria are annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms form our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week.”可知,细菌对宇航员来说是个令人讨厌的问题。这种来自我们身体的微生物在国际空间站的表面不受控制地生长,宇航员每周要花几个小时来清理它们。也就是说它们很难去掉。其中的“the microorganisms”包括“bacteria”。由此可知, A项符合题意。

33.D 【解析推理判断题。根据第二段的 HUNCH  is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. Gordons students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity,...”可知,Hunch旨在把高中教室和NASA的工程师联系起来。Gordon的学生一直在研究如何在零重力下杀死细菌, ...”。结合最后一段中的“Gordon students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem,...”可知,学生每天都给NASA的工程师发邮件一起探讨(如何杀死空间站的细菌这一空间技术)这个问题。由此可推断出HUNCH program的目的把空间技术与学校教育相结合。分析选项可知D项符合题意。

34.A 【解析细节理解题。根据第三段中的“Ive got to produce this product and then, at the end of the year ,present it to NASA, ”“Engineers come and really do an in-person reviewand ...Its not a very nice thing at times. Its a hard business review of your product.”可知,NASA的工程师要检查学生所做的产品。分析选项可知A项符合题意,故选A

35.B 主旨大意题。文章以国际空间站里的微生物很难清除开头,引出宇航员们解决此问题的途径——借助美国国家航空航天局的HUNCH高中班,此计划的目的是把航天技术与学校教育结合起来。在这项计划里,学生们通过homework(制作供美国国家航空航天局使用的产品)探索无疆的太空,因此“太空:最后的功课疆域”最适合做文章的标题。故选B

Passage4

语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。语音操作与自动化技术出现使得机器人电话可以以假乱真。语音操作和自动化技术发展会使得机器人电话产生的问题更加严重。

38. D 

【解析】观点态度题。根据第一段中的“We are finally waking up to the severity of the problem by supporting and developing a group of tools, apps and approaches intended to prevent scammers from getting through. Unfortunately, its too little, too late. By the time these solutions become widely available, scammers will have moved onto clever means”可知,最后,我们通过支持和开发一组旨在防止欺诈者通过的工具、应用程序和方法,认识到了问题的严重性。不幸的是,我们的努力太少了,也太晚了。在这些“解决方案”被广泛使用的时候,骗子将转移到更巧妙的手段上。由此推知,作者认为这些“解决办法”对于解决问题起不了什么作用,因此作者感到很“失望”。故D选项正确。

39.A 

【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段中的“The reason that robocalls are a headache has less to do with amount than precision. A decade of data breaches of personal information has led to a situation where scammers can easily learn your mothers name, and far more. Armed with this knowledge, theyre able to carry out individually targeted campaigns to cheat people. This means, for example, that a scammer could call you from what looks to be a familiar number and talk to you using a voice that sounds exactly like your bank tellers, tricking you into confirming your address, mothers name, and card number”可知,机器人通话之所以令人头痛,与其说与数量有关,不如说与精确度有关。长达十年的个人信息泄露已经导致了这样一种情况:骗子可以轻易地知道你母亲的名字,甚至更多。有了这些知识,他们就能够开展有针对性的运动来欺骗人们。根据这些可知,利用这种新的技术,欺诈者们可以精确的确定他们行骗的目标。故A选项正确。

40.B 

【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句可知,这项语音技术可以产生一个听起来和人类非常相似的声音,它可以和接待员进行交谈,进行预订。由此可知,这项新技术有其好的方面。根据第三段的叙述可知,欺诈者们可以利用这项新技术来进行欺诈行为。由此推知,这项新技术既可以发挥好的作用,也可能为坏人所利用,产生不好的作用,因此可以说它是一把双刃剑。故B选项正确。

41.C

【解析】主旨大意题。第一段提到:robocalls(机器人电话: 自动拨号播放录音信息的推销电话)在未来变得会越来越严重,不仅仅是出现在你的手机屏幕上的电话号码令人怀疑,而且你会质疑听到的声音是否是真的。第二段介绍原因:语音操作与自动化技术的出现使得机器人电话可以以假乱真。第三段介绍了语音操作和自动化技术发展会使得机器人电话产生的问题更加严重。最后两段提出我们该如何应对这些问题。综上,文章第一段点明文章中心:机器人电话问题在未来会变得越来越严重。下文都是围绕这一话题展开的。故C选项适合作标题。

题组

Passage 1

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了一档英国系列电视节目,给观众介绍如何减少食物浪费以及如何以较少的预算做出美味佳肴

24.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第一段知道Good Morning Britain’s Susanna Reid is used to grilling guests on the sofa every morning, but she is cooking up a storm in her latest role可知开辟了一个新的节目。故选B             

25.C 【解析】细节理解根据文章第二段中的In Save Money: Good Food, she visits a different home each week and with the help of chef Matt Tebbutt offers top tips on how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day.可知 Susanna 在Matt Tebbutt的帮助下提供如何减少食物浪费同时给每日生活费低于5英镑每个家庭准备食谱。故选C。解题关键词同义词表达with the help ofhelp。

26.C 【解析】写作意图题。根据文章第四段中的which gave viewers advice on how to get value from the vast range of health products on the market.可知Save Money: Good Food节目Save Money: Good Health节目之后,给观众一些建议:如何从众多的市场上的健康产品中获取价值。故选C。

27.D  【解析】主旨要义题。根据文章的整体内容可知,文章作者一直在讲如何用较少的钱做出好的食物。根据文章中的prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget. 资金紧张的情况下,准备可口且有营养的饭菜; how to reduce food waste, while preparing recipes for under £5 per family a day. 如何减少食物浪费同时给每日生活费低于5英镑每个家庭准备食谱 how cheaply we can make this food ourselves. 我们自己做这种食物有多便宜; less expensive but still tasty recipes.不贵可仍然可口的食谱。可以推知D正确。

Passage2

文章大意】这是一篇议论文。在当今社会,人们在公共场合或沉迷于智能手机,或与不舒服的沉默抗争,陌生人之间缺乏沟通。但人与人之间是需要适当的交谈闲聊的,闲聊是人际关系社会交往必不可少的部分,而且也有很多好处。

32.C  【解析】主旨大意题。题干问的是:第一段描述了什么现象。在公共场合(比如在电梯里,在银行排队,或在飞机上)人们深深地专注于他们的智能手机,或者更糟糕的是,与不舒服的沉默抗争。有此可知,陌生人之间缺乏沟通。A项意为:沉迷于智能手机。B项意为:在公共场所不适当的行为。C项意为:陌生人之间缺乏沟通。D项意为:对缓慢的服务不耐烦。故选C项。

33.B  【解析】推理判断题。题干问得是对于Carducci来说,成功的闲聊中重要的是什么。根据第三段最后一句“The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them”(成功闲聊的关键是学习如何与他们交流,而不仅仅是与他们沟通。)由此推断C符合题意。A项意为:表现出良好的礼貌。B项意为:与他人有关的。C项意为:专注于一个话题。D项意为:做商业交易。故选B项。

34.D  【解析】推理判断题。题干问的是:咖啡店的研究对闲聊有什么建议。根据第四段的调查结果可知,那些与服务员聊天的人,有显著的积极情绪和更好的咖啡店体验。由此可知,D项符合题意。A项意为:闲聊改善了家庭关系。B项意为:闲聊提高了人们的信心。C项意为:闲聊和正式谈话一样重要。D项意为:闲聊让人感觉很好。故选D项。

35.C  【解析】主旨大意题。整篇文章刚开始介绍了社会的现象(公共场合人们沉迷于智能手机,陌生人之间缺乏沟通交流),接着分析了这一问题的原因,接下来有专家对闲聊进行了研究,最后得出结论,闲聊都有什么样的好处。A项意为:谈话很重要。B项意为:闲聊的方法。C项意为:闲聊的好处。D项意为:不舒服的沉默。故选C项。

Passage3

话题解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。

24.C  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第一段中Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。

25.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第二段最后一句Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.可知,在最初挖黄金的两万人中有4000人变富有,所以是五分之一的人变富了,故B正确。

26.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come.可知,人们离开Dawson的主要原因是听说在Alaska发现了黄金,也就是他们要去别的地方寻找发财的机会。故B正确。

27.A  【解析】主旨大意题。第一段简要介绍城市发展的原因,引出Dawson这一城市的兴起,第二段介绍了该城市兴起的原因,第三段介绍人们选择离开该城市的原因及现在的状况,所以全文围绕Dawson这个城市的发展起伏。故A正确。

Passage4

文章大意】本文为一篇记叙文。讲述了自己第一次跑马拉松,凭借自己的意志力成功跑完全程的励志故事。

36.C  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第一段最后一句Yet, I was determined to go ahead. 可知马拉松赛前一个月尽管作者脚踝受伤使得训练时间缩短,但作者仍下定决心参赛。故选C

37.C  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第二段I didn’t do either well. He later informed me that I was not athletic可知作者提到7年级的事情是为了证明自己真的没有运动天赋。故选C

38.A  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第10段I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had. 可知作者坚持到了最后,而且得到了一块奖牌,虽然不是第一名,由此可见他成功地跑完了马拉松。故选A

39.B  【解析】主旨大意题。通读全文可知,作者在讲述自己跑马拉松的经历,再根据最后一段Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a marathon winner. 可知作者成功跑完马拉松源于自己的意志。故选B

题组

Passage 1(2020·重庆高三开学考试)   

【答案】1.D  2.A  3.B  4.C

【解析】本文为一篇议论文。文章论述了作者不赞成美国总统Trump响应种一万亿棵树来对抗气候变化的倡议,作者认为真正能解决问题的方法是迅速地大量减少碳排放。

1细节理解题。根据第一段The trillion-tree idea won wide attention last summer after a study published in the journal Science concluded that planting so many trees was “the most effective climate change solution to date”.去年夏天,发表在《科学》杂志上的一项研究得出结论,大量种树是“迄今为止最有效的气候变化解决方案”,这 “一万亿棵树”的想法赢得了广泛关注。可知,一万亿树的想法引起了公众的广泛关注。故选D项。

2主旨大意题。根据第三段Focusing on trees as the big solution to climate change is a dangerous diversion(偏离). Worse still, it takes attention away from those responsible for the carbon release that are pushing us toward disaster. 把树木作为解决气候变化的主要办法是一种危险的转移。更糟糕的是,它把注意力从那些对碳排放负责的人身上移开,正是这些人把我们推向灾难。因此,第3段主要论述了以植树来保护环境的缺点。故选A项。

3推理判断题。根据最后一段In a sharp counter argument to last summer's Paper in Science, Justin Gillis wrote in the same journal in October that the study's findings were inconsistent with the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. He warned that “the claim that global tree restoration(复原) is our most effective climate solution is simply scientifically incorrect and dangerously misleading. Justin Gillis在《科学》杂志上发表了与去年夏天《科学》杂志公布的研究结果截然相反的观点,他认为去年夏天公布的那个研究结果是不符合地球碳循环动力学的。同时,他发出警告:通过植树来解决气候问题是不科学的,是错误的,是危险的,是具有误导性的。推测,Justin Gillis对植树提议是持反对态度的。故选B项。

4主旨大意题。结合全文,文章论述了作者不赞成美国总统Trump响应种一万亿棵树来对抗气候变化的倡议,作者认为真正能解决问题的方法是迅速地大量减少碳排放,种树的想法是不科学的,且具有误导性。C项“植树不会拯救世界。”符合文章主旨,适合作为标题。故选C项。

Passage 2(2020·天津和平耀华中学高三一模)   

【答案】1.D2.A3.B4.C5.A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要说明了有研究表明,在一个孤独的地方呆了很长时间会对大脑造成损害。文介绍了这项研究的过程、相关研究人员对此的看法和这一发现的重要性。

1.细节理解题。根据第一段Spending over a year in the bleak (荒凉的) Antarctica might change your brain for the worse, according to new research out this month. It seems to show that polar explorers who lived for 14 months at an Antarctica research station experienced brain shrinkage, likely as a result of their loneliness and boredom.可知,根据本月公布的一项新研究,在荒凉的南极洲度过一年多可能会让你的大脑变得更糟。这似乎表明,在南极研究站生活了14个月的极地探险家的大脑出现了萎缩,可能是由于他们的孤独和无聊。由此可知,在一个孤独的地方呆了很长时间会对大脑造成损害。故选D。

2.细节理解题。根据第二段The study’s authors used MRI (核磁共振) to scan the brains of eight members of a team before they began a long stay at the German-run research station. During their mission. the team periodically took tests of their cognition and memory and provided blood samples that allowed the study authors to measure their levels of a protein important for brain health called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). When they returned, they had their brains scanned again.(该研究的作者在一个团队的8名成员开始在德国运营的研究站长期停留之前,使用核磁共振成像扫描了他们的大脑。在他们执行任务过程中,研究小组定期对他们的认知和记忆进行测试,并提供血样,使研究作者能够测量他们的一种叫做脑源性神经营养因子的蛋白质水平,这种蛋白质对大脑健康很重要。当他们返回时,再次对他们的大脑进行扫描)以及第三段Finally, compared to themselves before the mission, the explorers' brains appeared to have less grey matter on average. The shrinkage was most apparent in the hippocampus, in area of the brain key to memory and cognition. Their average levels of BDNF also dropped during the trip and didn’t improve significantly even after one-and-a-half months back home.可知,最后,与执行任务前相比,探险者的大脑平均灰质较少。海马的萎缩最为明显,海马是大脑中记忆和认知的关键区域。他们的平均BDNF水平在旅途中也有所下降,即使在回家一个半月后也没有明显改善。由此可知,科学家通过比较扫描结果得出结论。故选A。

3.推理判断题。根据第三段中Finally, compared to themselves before the mission, the explorers' brains appeared to have less grey matter on average. The shrinkage was most apparent in the hippocampus, in area of the brain key to memory and cognition.可知,最后,与执行任务前相比,探险家的大脑平均灰质较少。海马的萎缩最为明显,海马是大脑中记忆和认知的关键区域。由此可推知,当探险家返回时,他们在记忆方面有些困难。故选B。

4.细节理解题。根据第四段中The study's findings, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aren't the first to suggest that long time of being separated can change the brain.可知,这项研究发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》上,并不是第一个表明长时间的隔绝会改变大脑的研究。由此可知,其他研究与本研究有相同的发现。故选C。

5.主旨大意题。根据最后一段Still, since people will continue traveling to and from Antarctica for long periods of time, the findings are definitely worth keeping in mind and exploring further. They might even prove relevant for the rare few people who might travel as far as Mars in the future — perhaps the only similarly scientific, months- long mission that would be even more lonely.可知,尽管如此,由于人们将在很长一段时间内继续往返于南极洲之间,这些发现绝对值得我们牢记在心,并进行进一步的探索。他们甚至可能会被证明与未来可能远行到火星的极少数人有关——也许只有类似的科学性、长达数月的任务才会更加孤独。由此可知,最后一段主要讲了这一发现的重要性。故选A。

Passage 3(2020·哈尔滨市第一中学校高三开学考试)   

【答案】1.D2.C3.C3.A

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。讲述了Kevin Randall老师在学校组织了一个环保俱乐部,带领学生进行环境保护相关的活动及成就,提高学生环境保护意识的故事。

1推理判断题。根据第一段“it aims to raise awareness among students and teachers about sustainability(持续性).It also works on projects to reduce the environmental footprint of the building itself.”(它旨在增强学生们和老师们关于可持续发展的意识。它也致力于减少建筑本身的环境面积的项目。)可知,the GHS Green Team club的目的在于促进环境保护。故选D。

2细节理解题。根据第三段“And now every student uses a durable metal fork or a spoon instead of disposables.(一次性用品),”(现在每个学生都使用耐用的金属餐叉或勺子,而不是一次性餐具。)可知,学校餐厅项目的结果是餐厅不再使用塑料餐具。故选C

3主旨大意题。根据第四段内容,“In addition to their work reducing waste in the cafeteria,”、(除了他们减少餐厅废物的垃圾的工作,)“the GHS Green Team has also built a garden with flowers and vegetables on campus,”、(the GHS Green Team还在校园里建立了有鲜花和蔬菜的花园)“Randall and his students have also been working on raising money to install solar panels(太阳能板) on the roof of the high school”,(兰德尔和他的学生也一直在筹集资金为了在高中屋顶安装太阳能电池板)可知第四段的主要介绍了这个俱乐部组织的活动有哪些。故选C

4推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“because he wanted his students to have someone to turn to in the building who understands what's at stake(利害攸关)when it comes to climate change.”(因为他想要让他教学楼里的学生能够变成理解气候变化的利害相关的人。)可知,Randall的目的在于教育年轻人。故选A。

Passage 4(2020·湖南高三二模)   

【答案】1.B 2.C  3.D 4.D

【解析】本文是说明文。介绍了父亲对孩子的语言的发展影响很大。

1细节理解题。根据第2段中的 “They've found, to their surprise, that not only are fathers important for children's language development, but that fathers matter more than mothers.( 令他们惊讶的是,他们发现不仅父亲对儿童语言发展的是重要的,而且父亲比母亲更重要)” 可确定答案是B。故选B

2细节理解题。 根据第3段That makes mothers more likely to choose words the kids know.Fathers aren't as familiar with their kids,so they use a broader vocabulary,and the kids learn new words and concepts as a result.可知,这使得母亲们更倾向于选择孩子们知道的词语。父亲和孩子不太熟悉,所以他们会使用更广泛的词汇,而孩子也因此学会了新单词和概念。,父亲之所以在孩子的语言发展方面起着更重要的作用是因为他们 “use a broader vocabulary”,而母亲则 “choose words the kids know”。相对父亲,母亲使用的词汇限制在孩子认识的词汇范围内。故选C

3词句猜测题。根据第4段中的“Because fathers usually spend less time with their kids” 因为父亲陪伴孩子的时间通常较少“That makes them more interesting playmates”这使它们成为更有趣的玩伴 “our children see it as very special”我们的孩子认为它很特别。可推断,因为父亲通常花更少的时间和他们的孩子在一起,他们更具新颖性,故划线词与D项意思相近。故选D

4主旨大意题。由第一段的Fathers have a strong influence on their children. And one of the areas in which researchers look for the influence is in the development of language.(父亲对他们的孩子有很强的影响。 研究人员寻找影响的领域之一是语言的发展。)以及全文内容可知,本文主要是关于父亲对儿童语言的贡献大于母亲。故选D

 

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