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英语语法专项训练简单句和复合句
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英语语法专项训练简单句和复合句

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句子的结构类型 

句子按其语法结构可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。

简单句:由一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语构成的句子。

简单句的基本类型:
1. 主语+不及物动词(SV) his father is cooking .

2.主语+及物动词+宾语(S+V+O 及物动词后接名词代词动名词和动词不定式作宾语。

He didnt like the film .

  1. 主语+系动词+表语(S+V+P

系动词:be ,get ,turn ,get ,become , go , feel .look .taste, sound, seem, smell, keep ,stay

表语:名词,代词,形容词。

Your match looks very nice .

  1. 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(S+V+INO+DO

人是间接宾语,物是直接宾语,通常情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后,直接宾语在前时,常用介词 for, to 引导间接宾语。接to 的动词有give, bring , show , tell lend  for 动词有buy , choose , find , cook , draw , sing ,get , make 等。

He gave me his English book .

当两个并与都是代词时, 一定要把指物的代词放在前面。 Please give it to me .

  1. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(S+V+O+OC

宾语和宾语补足语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓和主表关系,可做宾补的词有名词,形容词, 现在分词,动词不定式,介词短语等。

A接名词作宾补的动词有call , make , think , name .  We call him Tom for short .

B. 接形容词作宾补的动词有,keep , make , find , think . I find Chinese very hard .

C. 接动词不定式作宾补。 The boy tells them not to do it .

D. 接现在做宾补的动词有hear, see, watch 等。  In the country ,he can hear the birds singing .

E. 接介词短语作宾补的动词有find ,take , keep .

如何区别宾补和双宾。

在宾语后加be ,成立的是宾补,不成立的是双宾。

F.

二并列句

由并列连词把两个或两个以上的简单句并列在一起而构成的。

其构成为:简单句+并列连词+简单句

  1. 表顺承并列关系的连词及并列句。And, bothand, as well as , not onlybut also,neithernor

My father bought me a present ,and I like it very much .

  1. 表示转折关系的连词及并列句 but, yet , while , however

Lucy likes red while lily likes white .

  1. 表示选择关系的连词及并列句。 Eitheror ,  not but ,  or

Study  hard , or youll fail the exam .

  1. 表示因果关系的连词及并列句.for ,so . therefore .(所以)

Kate was ill so she didnt go to school .  I have to study up late ,for I have lots of homework to do .

三复合句:由一个主句和一个或一个以上从句构成的句子。

(一) 状语从句

在复合句中,修饰主句中的动词,形容词,副词等的从句。状语从句由从属连词引导,与主句连接,位于句首时,常用逗号与主句分开,位于句末时,其前一般不用逗号,,状语从句根据其用途 可分为时间,地点,原因,目的,结果,让步,方式,条件等类。

  1. 时间状语从句

在复合句中,担任状语成分的从句称为状语从句。时间状语从句说明主句动作发生或进行的时间。状语从句由连词引导,其位置通常可以放在句首或句末。放在句首是,常用逗号与主句分开;放在句末时,从句前面往往不加逗号。

时间状语从句的引导词:when ,as , while , as soon as , before , after ,since, till ,notuntil

)en“……,引导时间状语从句时,从句用于表示主句动作发生的特定时间。

The days get longer when spring comes. = When spring comes, the days get longer.春天到来时,白天变得更长了。

)fore“……之前,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句动作发生在从句动作之前。如:

Close the door before you leave the room.离开房间前关上门。

)ter……之后,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。如I went to school after I finished my breakfast.吃完早饭后我就去上学了。

)soon as“…………”,引导时间状语从句时,表示主句动作紧接着从句动作发生。如:Ill call you as soon as I get home.我一到家就给你打电话。

)ntil, till“直到,引导时间状语从句。当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主句常用肯定形式;当主句谓语动词是非延续性动词时,主句要用否定形式,即“not…until/till…”意为直到…………”。如:

Ill wait here until/till the rain stops.我将在这里等着,直到雨停。

You cant go home until/till you finish your work.直到你完成你的工作,你才能回家。

)since引导的时间状语从句。

since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:

I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?

It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。

)by the time引导的时间状语从句。

注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果从句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。例如:

By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。

By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

)each time, every time等引导的时间状语从句。

Each time he came to Harbin, he would call on me. 他每次来哈尔滨,总是来看我。

Whenever that man says“To tell the truth”, I suspect that he's about to tell a lie.每当那个人说说实在话的时候,我猜想他就要说谎了。

You grow younger every time I see you. 每次遇到你,见你更年轻了。

)as long as和so long as引导的时间状语从句。

这两个连词表示只要例如:

You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。

I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况

when, whileas的区别

when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,可以是瞬时动词。并且when有时表示就在那时。例如:When she came in, I stopped eating.她进来时,我停止吃饭。(瞬时动词)

When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.当我住在农村时,我常常为他担水。(延续性的动词)

We were about to leave when he came in.我们就要离开,就在那时他进来了。

While引导的从句的谓语动作必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)。并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:

While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV. (was reading是延续性的动词,was readingwas watching同时发生)

I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比)

As表示一边……一边as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调一先后。例如:

We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示一边……一边

As we were going out, it began to snow.当我们出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

2.原因状语从句

如果从句表示的是主句的行为元音就构成原因状语从句

A导原因状语从句的连词because, as, sincenow that引导。

Bbecause, as, sincenow that的区别:

1because“因为,表示直接的原因,语气最强。

1why提问的句子,必须用because回答。

2because的从句常放在主句之后。

3because 不能与so连用。

4because+ 从句;because of+ 名词短语

I missed the train because I got up late.

He was angry not because we were late but because we made a noise.

-Why didn’t he come yesterday?  -Because he was ill.

2as“因为,语气较弱,一般放在主句前,中间用逗号隔开,表示的是明显的原因。

As he was not well, I decided to go there without him.

As it was raining hard, we had to be indoors.

3since/ now that“既然,一般放在主句前,中间用逗号隔开,表示的是明显的原因或众所周知的事实。

Since/ Now that this method doesn’t work, let]s try another.

Since/ Now that you feel ill, you'd better not go to work.

Cfor 引导的并列句与原因状语从句的辨析

并列连词for“因为,引导的不是从句,而是并列分句,只能放在主句之后,不能放在句首,常用逗号把它和前面的分句隔开。对主句补充说明理由或推断原因。

  It rained last night, for the ground is wet.   

    She must have gone out early, for she had not come for breakfast.

3目的状语从句:

用来说明主句中谓语动词发生的目的的从句叫做目的状语从句。

表示目的状语的从句可以由 that(以便),so that(以便), in order that(为了;以便),Lest(免得;唯恐), for fear that(生怕;以免)等词引导;目的状语从句的谓语常含有may, might, can, could, should, would等情态动词。

学习目的状语从句应注意以下两点:

1)目的状语从句中常含有can,could,may,might,should等情态动词。 例如:

 I got up early so that I could catch the first bus.

2)在口语中so可以引导目的状语从句。例如:

  We'll sit nearer the front so we can hear better. 我们坐的靠前一点,因此,我们听得清楚一点。

  1in order thatin order to的区别:

  in order that 从句   in order to 动词原形 in order to后面加的那个不叫目的状语从句,叫目的状语) 例如:

  He got up early in order to take the first bus.

  = He got up early in order that he could take the first bus.(他起床很早是为了赶上第一班 公共汽车)

  目的状语从句的一个特点:由于目的都是未来的行为,所以从句中一般用表示未来可能性时态,比如上面句中的could。当然还可以用will,would,can,

  2so that既可引导目的状语从句,也可以引导结果状语从句。

  1)其引导结果状语从句时,so that翻译为以至于...”,经常可以和so/such...that...转换,且从句只能放在主句之后。如:He got up late so that he was late for school. = He got up so late that he was late for school.

  2)其引导目的状语从句时,从句只能放在主句之后,此时可以和in order that换用。如:He got up early so that he could take the first bus. = He got up early in order that he could take the first bus.

  如何区别目的状语从句中的so that与结果状语从句中的so that的用法,这是我们需要注意的。目的状语从句的so that是连着的,结果状语从句是分开的,即so…that. so that是目的状语从句,是为了什么什么,有目的的含义。而so…that是结果状语从句,是如此怎么怎么样结果是什么

4.结果状语从句:

   在句中作结果状语的从句称为结果状语从句,结果状语从句一般置于句尾。常用来引导结果状语从句的词或短语有:that , so, so that ,so ```that ```

1      so thatso···that···引导的结果状语从句 

①、 so that引导的结果状语从句

 It was dark,so that we could see nothing in front of us.

天很黑,我们看不见前面的任何东西。    

②、 so···that···引导的结果状语从句

 so···that···引导的结果状语状语从句可以构成如下结构

 so+      形容词或副词   

so+     many/few+可数名词复数) 

so+    much/little(+不可数名词)        +that+从句      

so+ 形容词+a/an+可数名词复数 

 Kathy is so lovely that we all like to play with her. 西很可爱,我们都愿和她玩。    2 such···that···引导的结果状语从句 

such···that···引导结果状语从句,可以构成如下结构:

    such| + a/an +形容词+可数名词复数

    such+    形容词+可数名词复数              +that+从句        

such+     形容词+不可数名词 

 Kathy is such lovely girl that we all like to play with her. 西很可爱,我们都愿和她玩。    特别提示!:

为了强调形容词或副词,so/such···that···引导的结果状语从句,可把so/such部分置于句首,主语用倒装语序。 So excited was he that he could not fall into sleep. 他太激动不能入睡。   

3.that引导的结果状语从句  What have we done that you should be so angry with us? 我们做了什么使你这么生气?

4.So thatsothat引导的结构状语从句和目的状语从句的区别:

  1根据上下文意思理解;

 2从结构形式上进行判别:

A.从句之前有逗号(或停顿),为结果状语从句;否则为目的状语从句。

 Miller slammed the door, sothathe awakened his sister. (结果)

米勒砰地关上门,结果把他妹妹惊醒了。 

Miller slammed the door sothathis sister would know he was home. (目的)

米勒砰地关上门,以便使他妹妹知道他在家。

 B.有时由so that引导的结果状语从句之前并没有逗号,这时就要看:从句中表达的是意图还是可能性,有can, may, might, could, should, will, would等情态动词,则多为目的状语从句;如果表达的是事实或客观事实,没有上述情态动词,则多为结果状语从句。

He got up early so that he caught the first bus.   (结果)

他早早地起了床,结果赶上了首班公共汽车。 

He got up early so that he might catch the first bus. (目的)

早早地起了床以便赶上首班公共汽车。 

 C.目的状语从句可以移到句首,而结果状语从句只能位于主句之后。

例如:  We turned the radio up so that everyone could hear the announcement. (结果)我们开大收音机音量,结果大家都能听到通知。 

 So that everyone could hear the announcement, we turned up the radio.  (目的)

为了大家都能听到通知,我们开大了收音机音量。

D.能用too···toenough to结构代替so that从句,便是结果状语从句;能用in order to代替so that,或so that从句转换为in order toso as to+动词原形或不定式短语,则为目的状语从句。

 He walks fast so that we cant catch up with him. (结果)

(这句可为:He walks too far for us to catch up with.)他走得很快,我们赶不上他。

 I am saving money so that I can buy a house. (目的)

(这句可为: I am saving money in order to/so as to buy a house.

我在省钱以便买一间房子。     

5.让步状语从句

是状语从句中的一种,其本身也是状语从句。一般翻译为“尽管……”或“即使……”,就是我们日常生活中用的“退一步说……”的感觉。 使用的连词    引导让步状语从句的连词主要有以下这些:though, although,while, as; even if, even though; whether...or...; no matter+疑问词,疑问词-ever regardless of+名词/名词短语/名词从句,despitein spite of。切记although不可与but连用 用法   

1though, although表示“虽然,纵然”之意。   这两个连词意思大致相同,在一般情况下可以互换使用。在口语中,though较常使用,althoughthough正式,二者都可与yet, stillneverthe less连用,但不能与but连用。 

 Although/Though he was exhausted, (still) he kept on working.

虽然他已经精疲力竭了,但仍然继续工作。     

2as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。   as引导的让步状语从句必须以部分倒装的形式出现,被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原形,though也可用于这样的结构中,但although不可以这样用。 

   Object as you may, Ill go.(=Though/Although you may object, Ill go.)

纵使你反对,我也要去。    

3even if, even though 表示“即使……”,“纵使……”之意,含有一种假设。   这两个复合连词的意思基本相同。它们常互换使用,但意义有细微差别。even if引导的让步从句含有强烈的假定性,可用来表示与事实相反的假设,但不能用来描述已经发生的事实。而even though引导让步状语从句时,是以从句的内容为先决条件的,即说话人肯定了从句的事实,表示已经发生了的事。  

Well make a trip even if/though the weather is bad.

即使天气不好,我们也要作一次旅行。    

4whether...or...表示“不论是否……”,“不管是……还是……”之意。   由这一个复合连词引导的让步状语从句旨在说明正反两方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果。 

You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.

不管你忙不忙,都要参加这个典礼。    

Whether you believe it or not, it's true.无论你是否相信,这都是真的。   

5)“no matter+疑问词”或“疑问词-ever”的含义为“……都……;不管……都……”   它们引导的让步状语从句可以互换。  

 No matter what happened, he would not mind. (=Whatever  happened, he would not mind.)无论发生了什么,他都不会介意的。 

 No matter who you are, you must keep the law.(=Whoever you are, you must keep the law.不管你是谁,你都要遵纪守法。 

 但“no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,而“疑问词-ever”还可以引导名词性从句。 Whatever  (=No matter what) you say, I wont believe you. (Whatever 引导让步状语从句)无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。   

 I'll eat whatever (no matter what) you give me. (whatever引导宾语从句)

你给我吃什么,我就吃什么。    

Whoever comes will be welcome. (Whoever 引导主语从句) 不管谁来都受到欢迎。     此外,有时while也可以引导让步状语从句,但一般要位于句首。 

   While I like the colour, I don't like the shape.我虽然喜欢那颜色,但不喜欢那形状。     综上所述,我们可以看出,学习让步状语从句的关键是关联词的选用;其次,要注意的是由as引导的让步状语从句要用倒装语序。   让步状语从句表示:虽然,尽管,即使等概念,由although, though(尽管,即使), however(无论怎样), whatever(无论什么), whoever(无论谁), whomever(无论谁), whichever(无论哪个), whenever(无论何时), wherever(无论哪里), whether(是否), no matter (who, what, where, when, etc) (无论……), even if(即使), even though(即使)等词引导。   

 We wont be discouraged even if(=even though) we fail ten times.

我们就是失败十次也不泄气。    

It was an exciting game, though / although no goals were scored.

那是一场精彩的球赛,尽管一个球都没进。(though, although不能与 but连用)    Whether you believe it or not, its true.不管你信不信,这是真的。    

However (=No matter how) expensive it may be, Ill take it.

无论它有多贵,我也要买下它。  

Dont let them in, whoever(=no matter who) they are.不管他们是谁,别让他们进来。     No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks Im wrong.

无论我说什么或怎么说,他总认为是我错。 特别提醒   

1.no matter   whatwhowhichwhenetc.

whateverwhoeverwhicheverwheneveretc.)的区别:    

当引导让步状语从句时,两者相同,可以互换,但当引导名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句)时则只能用whateverwhoeverwhicheverwheneveretc)。如上面最后两个例句可改为:    

However pure the water looks,I do not want to drink it.   

 I want to marry the man I love, no matter who he may be.  

下面句子不能用no matter结构(no matter不能引导名词性从句):    

Whoever comes back first is supposed to win the prize.(主语从句)  

 I am ready to do whatever you want me to .(宾语从句)   

Whatever you did, I will accept.为让步状语从句.   

 I will accept whatever you did.为宾语从句.    

2. as 引导让步状语从句的用法     引导让步状语从句时,as意为“虽然,尽管”,通常从句要倒装,倒装的方法是将从句的表语或状语放在as之前,而用though引导让步状语从句时句字则不必倒装(口语中也可倒装)。  

 Heavily as it was raining outside, they started out very early.   

 Young as he is, he knows a lot=Though he is young Young though he is, he.

  他虽然年轻,但懂得很多。(though 也有这种用法,可以替换as,although没有这种用法)   though还可以用作副词,放在句末。

   It was hard work;; I enjoyed it, though=It was hard work, but I enjoyed it.

那工作很苦,但是我喜欢干。    

3.though/although, as 引导让步状语从句时,句中不能用but表示转折语气。    不能说:Though he looks weak, but he is healthy.    而要说:Though he looks weak, he is healthy.     或者说:He looks weak, but he is healthy.   我自己认为让步就是存在一定条件下的说法.    

4 . however 用作副词,不可连接句子。 但可置于第二句的句首、句末或句中。要特别注意标点的使用。   eg: Alice is a good studentHowever, she has one shortcoming    He has not arrived. He may, however, come later.     The composition is all right. There is room for improvement, however.   

  1. 5. 除以上提到的从句连词外,表示让步的介词短语有despite, in spite of, 后接名词。. Despite all these facts, we cannot ignore the advantages of learning through internet.结果状语从句。

6.条件状语从句

在句子中做条件状语的从句称为条件状语从句。可置于句首、句尾,有时还可置于主语和谓语之间。引导条件状语从句的连接词有:if ,unless,as/so long as 

 1.if引导的条件状语从句      表示在某种条件下某事很可能发生。 

 If we pay much attention to the earth, we'll have a better world.  

如果我们多关爱地球,就会拥有一个更美好的世界

 If it rains tomorrow, what shall we do?   如果明天下雨,我们怎么办?  

注意:if还可以引导虚拟条件句,表示不可实现的条件,从句中多用一般过去时或过去完成时。 What would happen if there were no water ? 如果没有水会怎样?

 2.unless引导的条件状语从句  unless的意思是如果不,除非。可与if...not互换。

 You will fail in English unless you work hard. 你英语考试会不及格的,除非你更加努力。

 3.as /so long as引导的条件状语从句  as /so long as意思是“只要”

 So long as you're happy,i will be happy. 只要你高兴,我就高兴。

4.once引导的条件状语从句  once引导的条件状语从句,意为“一旦...,就”,从句可置于主句前或后

Once you begin,never stop. 一旦开始,就绝不要停止

 Maths is easy to learn once you understand the rules. 一旦你理解了规则,数学就不难学了。  

提示:在条件状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时,用一般过去时代替过去将来时。 If the weather is bad next week, we'll put off the climbing. 如果下周天气不好,我们将推迟爬山。  Father told me if I worked hard he would buy me a gift. 爸爸告诉我,如果我努力学习,他会给我买一份礼物。   

注意

 学习" if " 引导的条件状语从句的用法,现在总结一下:    

一、        if 条件句不一般,几个要点记心间;    

 条件句,放在前,逗号要放句中间。     

条件句表可能,主句多用将来时;     

条件句表事实,主句常用现在时。 

if 引导的条件状语从句中,如果从句谈论的是一个有可能发生的事实及其产生的相关的结果,主句用一般将来时态,从句用一般现在时态。如:       

We can walk there if we can't find a bus .       

If it rains tomorrow ,we will not go  to the zoo.      

 What will you  do if you  find a panda in danger. 

如果 if 条件句谈论的是重复发生和预示要发生的情景和事件,则主从句大多用一般现在时态。如:      

 If bears are in danger ,they attack people. 

  if 引导的条件状语从句中,if 和条件句位置灵活,可直接放在主句后面,若 if 条件句放句首, 从句后面要加逗号,和主句隔开。还要注意前后时态一致原则

二、if引导的条件状语从句 

1)“if从句+祈使句”的句子。其实,if作为一个连词,主句也可以是其他形式的句子。 例如:If you want to go, please let me know.     If the green light isnt on, wait for a minute. 

 (2)“祈使句 + and (or)+ 陈述句” 在意思上相当于一个带有条件状语从句的复合句。  注意:

A. “祈使句 + and + 陈述句”可以转化为if引导的肯定条件状语从句,而且主语是第二人称。 

B. “祈使句 + or  + 陈述句”可以转化为if引导的否定条件状语从句,而且主语是第二人称。

Study hard and you will pass the exam. =If you study hard, you will pass the exam.       Hurry up, or youll be late. =If you dont hurry up, youll be late.                                                                                                                                                                     三、if从句与主句具有以下特点: 

1If从句中用一般现在时,表示未来的一种条件,从句中可以加时间状语。 

If you cant come tomorrow, we can hold the party a little later.

明天你如果不能来,我们可迟一点举行宴会。   

  If it doesnt rain tomorrow, well go to the Great Wall.  明天如果不下雨,我们就去长城。

 2.当if表示未来的条件时,主句中用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时,即“主将从现”。表示如果某种条件存在,就有可能/不可能发生什么事情。  E

If you dont get up early, you will be late for school.你如果不早点起床,上学就会迟到。

If I play games on it, it will go wrong.   如果我用它玩游戏,它就会坏掉。

3if从句可放在主句前或主句后,从句置于主句前时,须用逗号与主句隔开,反之则不用逗号。 .If its fine tomorrow, we can go out.  如果明天天气好,我们就能出去。

 She will be happy if she joins the party.  如果她参加聚会她会很开心的。

Ill ask the teacher for help if I dont understand.  如果我不懂我会求助老师的。   

三.注意if引导的条件状语从句和宾语从句的区别         

if可以用来引导宾语从句也可以用来引导条件状语从句,主要是要弄清if引导从句的时态。if在引导宾语从句时,意为“是否”。要根据实际情况来确定时态,而if在引导条件状语从句时意为“如果,假设”,要用一般时代替将来时,即“主将从现”。 

.I want to know if he will come here tomorrow.我想知道他明天是否到这儿来。  if在上句引导的是宾语从句,从句中有很明显的表将来的时间状语tomorrow,所以if从句要用一般将来时。)

If it rains tomorrow, well put off the sports meeting.如果明天下雨,我们就推迟运动会。  if在上句引导的是条件状语从句,尽管从句中也有表将来时的时间状语tomorrow,从理论上讲也应该用一般将来时,但是在if引导的条件状语从句中要用一般现在时代替一般将来时,故从句谓语用rains而不用will rain.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 ()宾语从句

在复合句中做及物动词介词或某些形容词宾语的句子。

I often think about how to improve my English . We all know she is a singer.

1. 宾语从句的连接词。

1)当宾语从句是陈述句时,用that引导。That通常情况下可以省略。并非所有动词后面后面都可接that,常接that 引导的宾语从句的谓语动词:believe, expect, explain, feel, hope, hear, imagine, prefer, promise , report , say, tell, see, think, understand ,warm, with

  She is a good teacher . the teacher told us .  The teacher told us that she is a good girl.

注意:引导词that 用于下列情况时不可省略。

A 当宾语从句的主语是that 时, he says that that is a useful book .

B 当宾语从句中含有主从复合句时,Im afraid that if youre lost it , you must pay for it .

C 当两个或多个宾语从句由并列连词连接时,除第一个从句中的that 可以省略外,其余从句中的that都不可以省略。

He said (that) the film was very interesting and that he enjoyed seeing it very much .

(2)含疑问语气的句子构成宾语从句时用whether if 连接。whether if可以互相转换。

Are you from Japan ? he asked me .  He asked me if /whether I was from Japan .

 注意:whether if在下列情况下,不能转换,只用whether 不用if

A 当句中or not 时, I dont know whether he will come or not .

B. 从句用作介词宾语时。 I’m interested in whether he joined the army .

C.  用在不定式前 I didnt know whether to eat this kind of food is bad for us .

D. discuss, consider, decide 的宾语时,

They are discussing whether they will go to Beijing tomorrow .

E引导主语,表语或同位语从句时,

Success depends on whether we work hard . 

whether the games will be held in our school is not known yet .

3)当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,连接词就用原来的疑问词,但一定要注意用陈述语气。

When did he leave for Japan ? could you tell me ?  could you tell me when he left for Japan . what is the matter本身就是陈述语序, whats the matter what was the matter,表示“怎么啦”,语序相对固定。, 宾语从句里要采用陈述语序.

 

2.宾语从句的语序。

无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序,即主句+连词+宾语从句(主语+谓语+……句式。根据连接词在从句中所担任的不同成分,可分为以下四种:
1)连接词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语。常见的连接词有: whowhatwhich等。如:
Could you tell me who knows the answerplease?你能告诉我谁知道答案吗?
The small children don't know what is in their stockings.这些小孩子不知道袜子里有什么东西?
2)连接词+名词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语的定语。常见的连接词有:whosewhatwhichhow manyhow much等。如:
He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。
The teacher asked us how many people there were in the room.老师问我们房间里有多少人。
3)连接词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语、状语或表语。常见的连接词有:whom),whatwhichhow manyhow much whenwhyhowwhereif whether(在句中不充当任何成分)等。如:
He hasn't decided if he'll go on a trip to Wuxi.他还没决定是否去无锡旅行。
Could you tell me what I should do with the money ?你能告诉我如何处理这笔钱吗?
4)连接词+名词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语或表语的定语。常见的连接词有:whatwhichhow manyhow muchhow等。如:
Do you know which class he is in ?你知道他在哪个班吗?
She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔

3.宾语从句的时态

 由主句时态确定从句时态。

1        如果主句是现在的某种时态,(包括一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时)那么宾语从句的时态根据实际情况而定。

    I remember he gave me a book yesterday  he has told me that hell leave for New York tomorrow .

(2) 如果主句是过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时)那么宾语从句一定要用过去的某种时态。(包括一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)

He told me that he would take part in the high jump .

(3)如果宾语从句表示的是客观事实或真理,自然现象,名言警句,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

He told me that the earth is round .

4)以could ,would 开头的句子,要看成一般现在时,不可看成一般过去式。

Could you tell me how I can get there ?

  1. 宾语从句的符号:由主句确定,主句是陈述句用句号,是疑问句用问号。

Do you know where he comes from ?     .I dont know when he will come back .

  1. 宾语从句的人称变化。根据句子意思变换人称。

   Are you from Japan ? he asked me . 

He asked me if /whether I was from Japan .

  1. 否定转移。在主从复合句中,当主句的主语为第一人称,谓语动词是believe , suppose, think, expect,guess,imagine,等时,要将从句的否定词转移到主句当中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定形式。I dont think he will come with me .

A否定前移的宾语从句变反意疑问句时,疑问部分的主语谓语与从句一致,并且用肯定形式。

I dont believe he tells lies , does he ?

B 如果主句主语是第二三人称他后面的宾语从句的否定词通常不前移,反意疑问句的主语谓语由主句确定。He thinks that his brother can’t arrive on time , doesnt he ?

8. 宾语从句的简化。

1)当宾语从句的主语和从句的主语相同,且主句的谓语动词是hope , wish, decide , agree, choose ,等时,从句可简化为不定式结构。

I hope that I can receive your email .-----I hope to receive your email .

(2) 当宾语从句的主语和从句的主语相同,且主句的谓语动词是knowremember ,forget , learn 等时,从句可简化为 疑问词+不定式 结构,当主句谓语动词是tell, ask. Show, teach 等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和简介宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为:疑问词+不定式结构。

She has forgotten how she can open the window .

She has forgotten how to get to open the window .

She doesnt know what she should do next .-----she doesnt know what to do next .

3)动词seem后的宾语从句可用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型要有适当变化。一般的,通常将宾语从句的主语作为简化的句子主语,seem(适当时态形式)做谓语。

   It seems that football is very interesting .------football seems to be very interesting .

4当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为名词(代词)+不定式结构。例如:
The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

5某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如:
  He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us.
  The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.

 →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

6某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)结构。例如:
  Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground.

 → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化。例如:
  I found that it was difficult to learn English well. →I found it difficult to learn English well.
  Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow. →Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.
  They found that the box was very heavy. →They found the box very heavy.

(1)   宾语从句可转化为名词或名词短语。

I dont believe what Tom said .--------I dont believe Toms words .

  1. 宾语从句中复杂的特殊问句。

当主句的谓语动词是say, imagine , think , believe , guess ,suppose , expect 等词时,要将引导宾语从句的特殊疑问词移到主句的最前面。

What do you think we should do to improve our environment ?

注意:

A  if 的不同用法:

If有两个意思,当是否讲时,引导宾语从句,从句的时态由事实决定,做如果假如讲时,引导条件壮语从句,此时若主语为将来时或祈使句时,从句用一般现在时,

I don’t know if she will come ,if he comes ,I will tell you .

B when 引导时间状语从句和宾语从句。

1)含有when 引导的时间状语从句的复合句中,若主句是一般将来时态,从句应用一般现在时。When 引导其他时态的时间状语从句时,从句时态应与主句时态保持一致

2when 引导的宾语从句,首先要保证从句的陈述语气,然后再根据何足惧的是太确定从句时态,使其基本与主句内容保持一致。

I don’t know when my father will come back ,but I’ll tell you when he comes back .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(三)定语从句

1.概述:在复合句中修饰某一名词和代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词和代词叫先行词,通常位于定语从句之前。引导定于从句的是关系代词that , which , who(whom,whose )和关系副词when, where, why .关系代词和关系副词位于先行词和定语从句之间,它即起连接作用,又充当从句的一个成分,含定语从句的复合句基本结构为:先行词+关系词+定语从句。

2.种类:定语从句分限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,限制性定语从句是句子不可缺少的组成部分,如果没有从句先行词的意义就不明确或不完整,主句也不完整。非限制性定语从句是主句先行词的补充说明,没有从句不影响主句意思的明确和完整,这种从句用逗号与主句分开,引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词用 which ,who ,不用that。而限制性定语从句的引导词是who , whom ,whose , that ,which , where, when, why 等。我们这里要讲的是限制性定语从句。

3. 引导词

1who引导的定语从句:修饰表示人的先行词,在从句中作主语或宾语,作动词宾语时用whom,而且常被省略,在口语中常用who代替whom

This is the English teacher who teaches my son .  the man who/whom I saw just now is Mr Hu.

(2) which 引导的定语从句:修饰表示事物的先行词,在句中充当主语宾语表语。

He is reading a book which is about war .   he is reading a book which he bought from London .

注意:which与介词搭配使用,介词可放在which之前,若是固定词组一般不可拆开。

The house in which Lu Xun once lived is now is Lu Xun Museum .

This is the magazine which you are looking for .

(3)that 引导的定语从句:一般情况下,that可以指人或物,可以代替who, whom ,which 在句子中做主语或谓语动词的宾语。但不能作介词的宾语。当先行词

Is that doctor that /who you talked about yesterday .

The letter that /which I received yesterday from my school .

4 whose引导的定语从句:whosewhowhich的所有格译作某个(些)人或物的……,它指代的先行词既可以是人也可以是物。修饰先行词的同时在句中作定语。

 This is the little girl whose parents were killed in the great earthquake .

 We lived in a house whose windows open to the south .

注意:由于whose具有whowhich的所有格的双重功能,所以在指人时,可以用of whom代替whose 指物时可以用of which 来代替whose .

This kind of book is for children whose native language is Chinese .(the native language of whom .)

Mr Brown has written a novel whose name I’ve completely forgotten .(the name of which )

(5) when 引导的定语从句:when表时间,在定语从句中做时间状语。

I still remember the year when you graduated from No.8 Middle School .

(6) why 引导的定语从句:why 表示原因,在定语从句中做原因状语,其先行词只有表示原因的reason 一词。We don’t know the reason why he was late for school .

(7)where  引导的定语从句: where表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

   This is the factory where father works .

3.关系代词的用法:

A 下列情况只能用that不能用who ,which .

(1)   先行词被序数词和形容词最高级所修饰时。 He was the first man that passed the exam.

(2)   当先行词是指物的all , any , much , little, everything ,something , nothing ,none, the one 时。

Is there anything that you don’t interested ?

(3)   当先行词被以下词修饰时,the only, the very. The same , the last, little , few , much, all, so, any , no . He is the only person that saw the accident .

(4)   先行词同时含有人和物时。I can remember the person and some pictures that I saw in the room

(5)   whowhich引导的特殊问句。 Who is the girl that is crying ?

(6)   主句是there be 结构, 修饰主语是物从句用that

There is a book on the desk belongs to him . There is little work that is fit for you

(7)当先行词作主句的表语时。

.China is not the country that used to.中国不再是过去那样的国家。

(8)the way ,distance ,direction 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由in which

That引导,通常可以省略如: The way (that/in which) he answered the questions was surprising.  他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。 

 I dont like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.        我不喜欢你嘲笑她的样子

B 关系词只能用which的。

  1)先行词为thatthose表示物时,whats that which is under the desk ?

   (2) 关系代词前有介词时。 This is the room in which he lives .

       ----this is the room that he lives in

   (3) 引导非限制性定语从句。 Tom came back , which made us happy .

(4)当主句中的主语被that修饰时 That dog which I found in the street belongs to Mary.

C 关系代词只能用who不用that

   1 当先行词为those ,he ,she , any 等代词表示人时,

He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man .

(2)there be 句型中,先行词指人,关系词用who

There is an old man who wants to see you.

There are many young men who are  against him.

 

         修饰人时关系代词that who, whom的区分

         当主句中的主语是who时,只能用that

         eg. Who is the girl that is standing over there?

         在非限制性定语从句中以及介词后面时只能用who 或者whom

         eg. I have a son, who is really lovely and interesting.

         There are 40 students in the class, most of whom are    boys.

         关系代词whose既能修饰人,也能修饰物,在定语从句中充当定语,修饰先行词

         eg. She is the girl whose English sounds very beautiful.

         Mary has a very good dog, whose hair turns out white and black.     

         D关系副词when, where和关系代词that, which的区分

         同样是修饰一个地点,有时使用where,有时使用that/which

         同样是修饰一个时间,有时使用when 有时使用that/which

         主要看: 从句意思是否完整;完整的话需用关系副词,若意思不完整则需加关系代词充当某个成分。二是定语从句中的谓语动词是否是一个及物动词。当从句中的谓语动词是不及物动词时

         ,1 不及物动词后无介词时,先行词在从句中充当状语,when(时间)或where(地点)

         .2 及物动词后有介词时,先行词在从句中充当宾语,whom,that,who(指人)或that,which(指物)或省略.及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。

         请比较以下句子:

         This is the park that we visited last year.(从句意思不完整需要加宾语)

         This is the park where we held a birthday party.(从句完整,只需加上特定的关系副词)

         Thats the date that she wont forget for ever.

         Thats the date when we went to the college.

         I like the time that we had together.

         I like the time when we lived together.

         She wont forget the days that she spent on the island.

         She wont forget the days when they stayed together.

         1. Is this the room _ that ___ you cleaned last time?

         2. Is this the room __where__ we lived before?

         3. This is the garden __where__ they stayed for a night.

         4. This is the garden _that___ they visited last time.

         5. Tom has forgotten the day when__when__ he left his home.

         6. Tom has forgotten the day __that__ I told him last day.

         7. She still remembers the year _when___ she found her first   job.

         8. She still remembers the year __that__ she spent in Jining.

         E关系副词when, where, why 和介词+which之间的关系。关系副词when, where, why可以用适当的介词+which来替代。如:when=in/on/at+which, where=in/on/at+which, why=for+which介词的位置非常灵活,有时放在关系代词之前,有时放在动词之后。

         eg. 1. I wont forget the date when( on which) I was born.

         2. This is the room where (in which) I lived. = This is the room which I lived in.

         3. I dont know the reason why (for which) he havent come today.

         4. Tom still remembers the days when (in which) they lived in Tianjin.

. 限制性和非限制性定语从句  

         1 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如:  

         This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)  

         The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)  

         2 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如:  

         Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理?史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。  

         My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。  

         This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。  

         3 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。例如:  

         He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。  

         Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。  

         说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。非限定性定语从句   as, which 引导

           as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,aswhich可代整个主句,相当于and thisand thatAs一般放在句首,which在句中。例如:  

           As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。  

           The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。  

         典型例题   

         1Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

           A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he  

              答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.it he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。  

         2The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.  A. what B. which C. that D. it  

         答案Bwhich可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。  

         3It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..  

         A. that B. which  C. as  D. it  

         答案B. as which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:  

         1as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。  2 as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B  

         as 的用法  

         1. the sameassuchas 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和„„一样„„。例如: 

               I have got into the same trouble as he has. 我碰到了跟他一样的麻烦。  

         2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。例如:  

              As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。  

              As is known, smoking is harmful to one's health.  As是关系代词。例1中的asknow的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

          

做题思路

定语从句:应放于名词或代词之后,且从句中缺少句子成分

从句中少主语,从which, that, who, as中选择

从句中少宾语,从which, that, who, whom, as中选择

从句中少状语,从where, when, why中选择(可换为介词+which)

从句中少定语,从whose, of which中选择

 

引导词

先行词

成分

who

主,宾

whom

(可省)

which

主,宾(可省)

that

人或物

主,宾(可省)

whose

(=of whom/which)

人或物

where

(=介词+which)

地点词

when

(=介词+ which)

时间词

why (= for which)

reason

 

D 定语从句引导词的省略与保留。

1)通常情况下引导词在定语从句中作宾语时可省略,作主语时不可省略。

   The cartoons (that/which )I like have lots of jokes .  做宾语

   I’d love to have a teacher who was a cartoonist . 做主语

2)在下列情况下关系代词虽做宾语,但不可省略。

   在介词+whom/which 结构中,whom which 不能省略。

   That is the headteacher with whom my father was talking just now .

Do you know any shops nearly in which I can buy flowers .

4. 对定语从句提问一般用which

He is reading a book which is about war    which book is he reading ?

  1. 定语从句的主谓关系。

 当引导词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的数取决于先行词的数。

I have a camera which has got his name on it .   these are the films which have been shown this year .

1)在定语从句中one of +the +复数名词+ who/which /that 引导的定语从句中,从句的谓语动词用复数,但是在the only one of +复数名词+ who/which /that 引导的定语从句中,先行词是one,从句的谓语动词要用单数。

Tom is one of the boys who are on time .  he is the only one of the students who has been a winner .

7.定语从句的时态。根据从句的主语和时间状语来确定。

 

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