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英语语法专项训练主谓一致和倒装句
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英语语法专项训练主谓一致和倒装句

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主谓一致    

.    语法一致原则

主语和谓语通常要在语法形式上取得一致。即主语是单数形式时,谓语动词也用单数形式,主语是复数形式时,谓语动词也用复数形式。

  1. and both  and 连接两个或三个名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

Tom and Mike are good friends .  Both Lucy and Lily are students .

  1. 不定代词either, neither, each one, the other, another anybody, everything, nothing,no one, nobody,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Is anything wrong with your bike ? 

  1. each, eachand , each everyand , every作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Each boy and each girl was given a new book .

  1. 主语后面接有with,along with ,together with , as well as ,  no less than ,more than , including , besides, like , except , but 等词或短语时,谓语动词的数由主语的单复数决定。

Mr Green with his wife and his two daughters is coming to Beijing .

  1. a number of +名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。The number of +名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

A number of trees are cut down . the number of students in our class is 32.

6.  a lot of ,lots of, plenty of, a pile of ,piles of , most of后加名词,分数或百分数 +名词,谓语动词的单复数取决于名词,如果名词是不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数形式,如果是可数名词复数,则谓语动词用复数形式。

   Lots of people have been there .

7. a pair (a kind , a series )+of +复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数,pairs (kinds )+of+复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。

A pair of sunglasses is lying on the table .

8. 某些只有复数形式的名词如clothes , trousers , shorts , pants , shoes , gloves 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

My shoes were worn out

9. S结尾的词本身不表达复数意思,谓语动词用单数news ,maths , physics , politics 等,

   No news is good news.

10. the +姓氏名词复数 表示一家人,或..夫妇,当它作主语时谓语动词用复数形式。

   The Blacks enjoy working in China .

11. 非谓语动词作主语谓语动词用单数形式。 Reading is learning .  to see is to believe .

12. one of +名词复数,作主语时谓语动词用单数。

   One of the women is from America .

二.意义一致原则。

意义一致又叫概念一致,即谓语动词用单数还是复数要看主语所表达的概念。

  1. and 连接的两个名词作主语,如果是指的同一概念(即and 后面无关词),则谓语动词用单数形式。The teacher and writer is coming to give us a talk next week.
  2. 表示金钱、价格、时间、长度等复数名词或词组作主语时,一般被看作一个整体谓语动词用单数。 Three year is a long time .
  3. 集体名词如family, team. Crowd, company, class, group, government ,nation, 等如果表示整体概念则谓语动词用单数形式,如果表示集体中的成员,则谓语动词用复数形式。

My family is a small one with three people .  All my family enjoy skiing .

  1. people , police , cattle 等集合名词作主语时谓语动词用复数形式。

The police are helping a girl find her mother .

  1. 表示国家,城市, 人名,报纸杂志,组织机构等专有名词作主语,通常作整体看待,谓语动词要用单数形式。

The New York Times is read by all over the USA.

  1. 有些以sh, ese,iss 结尾的表示国家 民族 的形容词与the 连用,指整个民族,表示复数含义,谓语动词用复数。

The Chinese are kind friendly .

  1. town, city , country , school , village 等表示总称的镇民时,作主语,谓语动词用单数。

The whole town is talking about it .

  1. 算式中加法和乘法可用单数,也可用复数,但减法和除法必须用单数。

What is /are three times five ?  Ten minus five is five .

  1. one and a half 的后面要接复数名词,作主语时谓语动词用单数。

One and a half cakes is a good meal for the monkey .

  1. 主语由many a +名词, more than one +名词, 谓语动词用单数。

More than one worker is playing cards .  Many a student has passed the exam .

  1. 引号中的词若为整体看待,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

bikes is the plural of the bike they is a pronoun .

  1. 某些形容词加上the old ,young , dead , poor ,rich , sick ,blind ,deaf 等,用来表示一类人,其意义为复数,谓语动词常用复数形式。 The old are taken care of .
  2. 当表示一两个的词组做句子主语时,谓语动词的变化如下。

1        a/an+名词单数+or two 做句子的主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

An apple or two is enough .

     (2) one or two +复数名词作主语谓语动词用复数形式。

        One or two girls have come here .

  1. 两个或两个以上的单数名词用and 连接起来做主语时,谓语动词有以下三种情况。

(1)  当两个并列主语不是同一事物时,谓语动词用复数形式。

       The boy and the girl are from Japan .

(2)  当两个名词指的是同一人同一物同一概念,谓语动词用数形式。

         The singer and dance has been invited to the party .

(3)      当这两个词分别被each , every , no , many a 等词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

Every teacher and every student needs a dictionary .

  1. none all, most ,,more, some ,any , 等做主语时,要根据这些代词表达的意思再决定谓语动词的单复数,若指不可数名词或可数名词单数谓语动词用单数,若指的是可数名词复数,谓语动词复数。

All of the work has been finished .  all of the people have gone .

  1. 疑问代词作主语时,谓语动词也有两种情况,主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数,主语表示单数,谓语动词用单数。

    Who is your brother ?    who are league members ?

  1. half , the rest 等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数含义,谓语动词用复数,如果所指为单数含义谓语动词用单数。

   I have a large part of the book , the rest is more difficult .

   Only ten students attended the class ,because all the rest were off sick .

  1. what 引导的主语从句时,通常谓语动词用单数,但如果所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数。

What she said is correct .   what she left me are a few old books .

  1. 定语从句中的谓语动词由先行词来决定。

Who is the boy that is playing football .

I want to read all the books that were written by luxun .

. 就近原则。

   有时谓语动词的形式与主语并不一致,而是与靠近它的名词一致。

  1. eitheror , neither.nor , not only but also,not but ,or 连接连个并列主语时,谓语动词与较近的主语在数上保持一致。

Not only my parents but also I am looking forward to meeting my uncle .

  1. there be here be 这两个句式中的动词be 常与最近的主语保持一致。

There is a book and some pens on the desk .

 

 

 

倒装句

英语句子的基本语序是比较固定的一般主语在前谓语在后。但有时因为语法结构的要求或由于修辞的要求,往往要改变句子的自然顺序,把一些本应置于主语之后的成分提前,我们称这种语序为倒装语序。倒装语序又分为全部(完全)倒装和部分倒装。

A全部倒装

  1. 表示方位的副词Out, up ,down, in ,away置于句首时。

Out rushed the children.

 注意;当主语是人称代词时,句子的语序倒装。

  1. 表示方位的介词短语置于句首时。

In front of the school is the hospital.

注意:介词短语在倒装句中要整体前移,不能拆开。

  1. here ,there 等副词开头的句子里,

Here comes the bus .

注意:here ,there 等副词开头的句子里,谓语动词常为:be, come, go 等,时态为一般现在时,如果主语是人称代词则不用倒装。

 Here they are.常考点:

Here/there +谓语动词+名词主语

Here/ there comes a bus . 

There goes the bell.

Here/there we are

B部分倒装如果只把助动词,情态动词,be动词放在主语之前,这种语序称为部分倒装

  1. 否定副词never, hardly seldom little,not 等置于句首时。

Hardly could he believe his own eyes.

  1. only+状语置于句首时

only in this way can you learn English well.

3.So+助动词/be 动词/情态动词+主语,如 so do I .  我也如此

4.Neither +助动词be 动词/情态动词+主语,如 neither do I . 我也不会

这两个结构常用来说明前面所说的情况也同样适用于后面的人或物,意思是某人/物也是这样。这种结构中的助动词be 动词/情态动词在形式上与前句的谓语保持一致,而且单复数由后面的主语决定,

Lucy is a good student, so is Lily .

这两种结构的不同点是

So+助动词/be 动词/情态动词+主语,依附于肯定句中,表示前边的肯定情况也适用后边的人或情况,意为某人也……相当于I do ,too .

Neither +助动词be 动词/情态动词+主语,依附于否定句,表示前边的否定情况也适合后边的人或情况。意为某人也……相当于I dont ,either.

Tom watched TV last night , so did Ann .

Mary didnt watch TV last night , neither did Jim .

5.not only but also 连接并列句子,前一部分倒装后一部分倒装。

not only does he learn to speak English but also he learns to write in English .

注意:如果置于句首的not only but also 连接两个并列主语,则句子不用倒装结构

Not only he but also I like football..

  1. there be 句型。

there be 句型是表示存在的一个句型,是一个主语在be 动词后面的倒装句。

There is a tree in front of the building .

 

.

there be 

表示某地某时存在某人某物 There be +某人/某物+某地/某时

There be结构的主语

a, There be结构的there 是引导词,无实义,其主语是be 后的名词或名词短语。且名词或名词短语通常用不确定的限定词,如a ,no , all 等修饰。也不用确定的限定词the ,this ,that ,these ,those 等修饰。

b. There be结构的主语不能是人称代词,专有名词及被物主代词或名次所有格修饰的名词。

误:There is China in the east of the world .  there are their books on the desk .

There are they under tree .

c.若要说明被限定的某人某物在某处时,常用某人某物+be +地点 Tom is in the room .

There be结构的谓语

a, There be结构的谓语是be ,它在人称数上应和后面的主语即名词保持一致,即主语是不可数名词或可数名词单数时用is /was ,主语是复数时用are /were .主语是两个或两个以上的名词时,be的形式采取临近原则,即与离它最近的主语的数保持一致。

 There is a picture on the wall .  there is an orange and apples in the basket .

b, There be结构的谓语动词有时不用be 而用其它动词,如live , stand , lie, seem 等使语言表达更生动。

 Long long ago , there lived a king .

There be结构的常见时态。

一般现在时态。 There is /are +名词

一般过去时态   There was /were +名词

一般将来时态   There is going to /will be +名词

现在完成时态   There has /have been +名词  

There be结构可与情态动词连用,表示推测。There must be no one in the room .

There be结构的句型转换。

a , 若对主语提问,无论主语是单数还是复数都用whats +地点?

There are some flowers in the garden .   There is a book on the desk .

What’s in the garden ?                What’s on the desk ?

b ,对修饰名词的数词或表示不确定数目的词提问,如果是可数名词用how many +名词复数+are there +其它?如果是不可数名词用how much +不可数名词+is there +其它?

There are some flowers in the garden .----- how many flowers are there in the garden ?

There is a little milk in the glass . ----how much milk is there in the milk ?

There is a cat in the room ---- How many cats are there in the room ?

反义疑问句用be not there .

there be have/has 区别

a , There be has /have 都当有讲,但have表示所属关系,即持有,拥有,占有,而there be 表示客观存在,不说明所有关系。 He has a pen .

b . 当主语是物或时间名词时,而且表示整体与局部,两者可互换。

The building has 6 floors .    there are 6 floors in the building .

A week has seven days .      there are seven days in a week .

c,在一般时态是,there  不能与have 连用。

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