1(句子Money with no strings attached的含义)
1(短语get bogged down的含义)
1(短句work it out of her system的含义)
1(句子The cat’s lot was about to improve的含义)
(1)The phrase“...” in the sentence could be replaced by “________”．
(2)The underlined word “...” in paragraph...refers to ________．
(3)What is the meaning of the underlined word in the...paragraph？/What does the underlined word mean in the...paragraph?
(4)Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the phrase “...”？
(5)The underlined word “...” most probably means “________”．
(6)The underlined sentence in the second paragraph implies that ________．
[典例] (2018·北京卷·D片段)A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrolpowered private cars worldwide with electric, selfdriving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ridehailing services, considering the cost of selfdriving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.
49．What does the underlined word “fielded” in Paragraph 4 probably mean?
[解析] A 词义猜测题。利用构词法解题。field常用作名词， 表示“场地，领域”，此处用作动词，引申为“使用，应用”。根据上段中画线词所在句的前半部分内容“The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly”并结合下句中的“as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology”可知，随着价格的降低以及人们对这项技术开始应用自如，第一批上市的无人驾驶车辆会“被应用”到“叫车服务”中。故选A。
[典例] (2017·全国卷Ⅱ·A片段)By translating the rich and humorous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience.
[点拨] 根据上文中的“By translating the rich and humorous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL”中的translating可知，interpretation与translating同义，意为：翻译。
有时作者会用表示对比或转折的信号词连接意思相反的两个词或句子，这时就可根据反义词线索猜测词义。表示对比或反义的信号词/词组常见的有：(whether)．..or，unlike，but，yet，however，while，although，nevertheless，instead，rather than，in contrast，on the contrary，on the other hand等。
[典例] (福建卷·E片段)If you’re tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming bored，you can attend an upbeat group fitness class that’ll keep your workout on track.
73．The underlined word “upbeat” in the second paragraph probably means “________”．
[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据上文语境可知，upbeat应与上文中的“tired of”意义相反，可猜测为“快乐的，乐观的”，故选A。
[典例] (2019·北京卷·D片段)Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean’s warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.
43．What does the underlined word “vulnerable” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?
[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据上段尾句“Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth...but also nutrients.”可知，温度变化对phytoplankton有很大的影响；由此可推知phytoplankton对海洋的温度很敏感。故选A。
为了说明或证实，文章中经常会举例，往往用来列举说明前面较难理解的词，这些例子可以帮助考生猜测生词。举例时，常常会用一些连接性的词，如such as，like, for example, for instance等。
[典例] (2018·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段)In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nationstate and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.
29．Which of the following best explains “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2?
[解析] C 词义猜测题。根据“dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over”可知，英语、西班牙语和汉语正在替代其他语言。由此推知，dominant languages意为“强有力的语言”。故选C。
同等关系是指一个词、一个词组或短语在句中作同一成分，而且他们的词义属于同一范畴。只要认出其中一个或几个词或短语，即可以确定同等关系中生词的词性、作用和大概的意思。常见的表示同等关系的信号词有：or，namely, that is, in other words, that is to say, to be more exact, to put in another way等。
[典例] (2018·全国卷Ⅱ·B片段)If you have a__juicer,__you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a “softserve” creamy dessert, to be eaten right away. This makes a fun activity for a children’s party; they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below.
26．What is “a juicer” in the last paragraph?
A．A dessert. B．A drink.
C．A container. D．A machine.
[解析] D 本段对juicer的功能做了描述，从其中的“you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a ‘softserve’ creamy dessert...”这些字眼可以看出juicer是一种机器，是一种将冷冻的香蕉、浆果等制成果汁的机器，此外，最后一句中的“they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below”明确指出画线词指的是一种机器(榨汁机)。故选D。
[典例] (2019·全国卷Ⅰ·B片段)But he’s nervous. “I’m here to tell you today why you should...should...” Chris trips on the “ld，” a pronunciation difficulty for many nonnative English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. “...Vote for...me...” Except for some stumbles,__Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.
25．What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A．Improper pauses. B．Bad manners.
C．Spelling mistakes. D．Silly jokes.
[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据文章内容可知，老师借助竞选演说鼓励同学们学会赞美自己。文中Chris Palaez的母语不是英语，他学英语才三年多，说话不流利，而且他在演讲时非常紧张，所以说话磕磕绊绊，故选A。
此类题目要求考生根据语境判断代词(this, that, it, they, them, one, which等)究竟指代什么。
[典例] (2017·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段)Despite the celebrations, though, in the U．S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.
It’s Jason Moran’s job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.
29．What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A．Jazz becoming more accessible.
B．The production of jazz growing faster.
C．Jazz being less popular with the young.
D．The jazz audience becoming larger.
the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3
the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations
1．返回原文，找出指代词(it, they, them, this等)。
[典例] (2019·浙江卷6月·B片段)Money with no strings attached. It’s not something you see every day. But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month, a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read, “Give What You Can, Take What You Need.”
24．What does the expression “money with no strings attached” in paragraph 1 mean?
A．Money spent without hesitation.
B．Money not legally made.
C．Money offered without conditions.
D．Money not tied together.
“money with no strings attached” in paragraph 1
Give What You Can, Take What You Need.
由“尽你所能，取你所需”可知，此处money with no strings attached的意思应该是“无条件提供钱”。
(2019·天津卷·D)Would you BET on the future of this man？He is 53 years old. Most of his adult life has been a losing struggle against debt and misfortune. A war injury has made his left hand stop functioning，and he has often been in prison. Driven by heavenknowswhat motives，he determines to write a book.
The book turns out to be one that has appealed to the world for more than 350 years. That former prisoner was Cervantes, and the book was Don Quixote(《堂吉诃德》). And the story poses an interesting question: why do some people discover new vitality and creativity to the end of their days，while others go to seed long before?
We’ve all known people who run out of steam before they reach life’s halfway mark. I’m not talking about those who fail to get to the top. We can’t all get there. I’m talking about people who have stopped learning on growing because they have adopted the fixed attitudes and opinions that all too often come with passing years.
Most of us，in fact, progressively narrow the variety of our lives. We succeed in our field of specialization and then become trapped in it. Nothing surprises us. We lose our sense of wonder. But，if we are willing to learn，the opportunities are everywhere.
The things we learn in maturity seldom involve information and skills. We learn to bear with the things we can’t change. We learn to avoid selfpity. We learn that however much we try to please，some people are never going to love us—an idea that troubles at first but is eventually relaxing.
With high motivation and enthusiasm，we can keep on learning. Then we will know how important it is to have meaning in our life. However, we can achieve meaning only if we have made a commitment to something larger than our own little egos(自我), whether to loved ones, to fellow humans, to work, or to some moral concept.
Many of us equate(视……等同于) “commitment” with such “caring” occupations as teaching and nursing. But doing any ordinary job as well as one can is in itself an admirable commitment. People who work toward such excellence—whether they are driving a truck，or running a store—make the world better just by being the kind of people they are. They’ve learned life’s most valuable lesson.
51．The passage starts with the story of Cervantes to show that________．
A．loss of freedom stimulates one’s creativity
B．age is not a barrier to achieving one’s goal
C．misery inspires a man to fight against his fate
D．disability cannot stop a man’s pursuit of success
52．What does the underlined part in Paragraph 3 probably mean?
A．End one’s struggle for liberty.
B．Waste one’s energy taking risks.
C．Miss the opportunity to succeed.
D．Lose the interest to continue learning.
53．What could be inferred from Paragraph 4?
A．Those who dare to try often get themselves trapped.
B．Those who tend to think back can hardly go ahead.
C．Opportunity favors those with a curious mind.
D．Opportunity awaits those with a cautious mind.
54．What does the author intend to tell us in Paragraph 5?
A．A tough man can tolerate suffering.
B．A wise man can live without selfpity.
C．A man should try to satisfy people around him.
D．A man should learn suitable ways to deal with life.
55．What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?
A．To provide guidance on leading a meaningful adult life.
B．To stress the need of shouldering responsibilities at work.
C．To state the importance of generating motivation for learning.
D．To suggest a way of pursuing excellence in our lifelong career.
(2019·杭州一中模拟)When she first started learning about the climate change from one of her elders, Fawn Sharp was invited on a helicopter flight over the Olympic Mountains to survey the Mount Anderson glacier. But the glacier was gone, melted by the warming climate. Sharp had a deep sense of loss when she discovered the glacier wasn’t there any more.
Loss is a growing issue for people working and living on the front lines of climate change. And that gave Jennifer Wren Atkinson, a fulltime lecturer at the University of Washington Bothell, US, an idea for a class.
This term, she taught students on the Bothell campus about the emotional burdens of environmental study. She used the experiences of Native American tribes, scientists and activists, and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fix—that “this is such an intractable problem that they’re going to be dealing with it for the rest of their lives.”
Student Cody Dillon used to be a climate science skeptic(怀疑论者). Then he did his own reading and research, and changed his mind.
Dillon wasn’t going into environmental work—he was a computerscience major. Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a fulltime volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.
Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinson’s class was just what he was looking for—a place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.
Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.
“We are already changing the planet—so many species are going to be lost, displaced or massively impacted，” she said. “The future isn’t going to be what they imagined.”
【解题导语】 本文是一篇新闻报道。文章主要报道了Jennifer Wren Atkinson给同学们上环境研究的情感负担课，意在通过这类课程告诉学生气候变化日益严峻，没人能够独善其身，因此要更加关注环境问题。
1．Why did the author mention the case of Fawn Sharp?
A．To lay a basis for Fawn Sharp’s further research.
B．To prove Fawn Sharp’s work is similar to Atkinson’s.
C．To lead into the issue of loss caused by climate change.
D．To show scientists’ concern about the Mount Anderson glacier.
C 解析：推理判断题。根据第一段内容可知，Fawn Sharp被邀请乘坐直升机飞越奥林匹克山脉，调查Mount Anderson冰川。但是因气候变暖，冰川融化消失了，当Fawn Sharp 发现冰川已经不在那里时，她有一种深深的失落感。由此可推知，作者通过Fawn Sharp发现冰山消失以及她的感受来引入“气候变化导致环境损失”的主题。故选C。
2．What’s the main purpose of Atkinson’s class?
A．To explore how different people deal with climate change.
B．To get students more concerned about environmental issue.
C．To find solutions to the Olympic Mountains environmental issue.
D．To teach students how to conduct a research about environment.
B 解析：细节理解题。根据倒数第二段Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.可知，Atkinson的课的主要目的是让学生更加关注环境问题。故选B。
3．Which of the following best explains the underlined word “intractable” in paragraph 3?
B 解析：词义猜测题。根据本句中的“and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fix”可知，Atkinson让她的24名学生面对这样一个现实：没有简单的解决办法；再根据破折号可知，此处表示这是一个如此棘手的问题，他们将在余生中处理它。由此可推知，intractable意为“困难的”，与difficult意义相近。故选B。
4．How did Atkinson’s class influence Dillon?
A．Dillon worked as a parttime volunteer for restoration projects.
B．It made him realize a planetwide climate disaster would happen.
C．It encouraged him to be more involved in environmental protection.
D．It discouraged him to work on restoration projects for the environment.
C 解析：推理判断题。根据第五段第二句“Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a fulltime volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.”可知，五年前，Dillon认为世界环境灾难的可能性是如此真实，以至于他辞去了工作，成了一名致力于修复项目的环保组织的全职志愿者；又根据第六段“Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinson’s class was just what he was looking for—a place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.”可知，工作六个月后，他认为Atkinson的课正是他想要的——一个他可以讨论他对不断变化的气候的担忧的地方。由此可推知，Atkinson的课鼓励了Dillon更多地参与环境保护。故选C。
[长难句分析] Yet，the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a fulltime volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.(第五段第二句)
分析：本句是一个复合句。so...(第一个)that...引导结果状语从句；第二个that引导定语从句，修饰先行词an environmental group。
(2019·金华十校模拟)Have you ever caught yourself saying “I hate small talk！” the minute you walk into a party? If so, you might be an introvert(内向的人). Introverts hate to chat about “small” subjects with people. They are fine when you talk oneonone but seem to get lost in the crowd when there’s a group around.
If you’re talking to an introvert, you might find that your first few conversations go one of two ways. Either they’ll seem to get bored and not say much or they’ll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more indepth topics. What you need to know is that the introvert are not being rude. It’s just that they don’t like small talk. Here’s why.
Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts don’t realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics. You don’t need to stay on small talk forever. However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time. Small talk is very fast. Someone says something and this should be followed up with a quick response. But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud. Before they answer, they’ll mull__over different thoughts.
Small talk in its very nature invites more people to join in. The more people who join in the conversation, the more the introvert will tend to step back. As a result, they’ll be quiet.
Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.
The listening involved with small talk is not indepth. The purpose is about listening “lightly” so you can figure out the right topics to spend some time on. Introverts tend to be great listeners, but they use active listening rather than light listening. This makes them wonderful friends, but can also make it difficult for new people to understand why they’re so quiet.
5．How do introverts respond to a chat?
A．They try to avoid it.
B．They get excited about it.
C．They give it their full attention.
D．They focus on unimportant topics.
A 解析：细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Either they’ll seem to get bored and not say much or they’ll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more indepth topics.”可知，性格内向者要么很厌烦不想多说，要么避免闲谈。故选A项。
6．What do we know about small talk?
A．It goes slowly.
B．It costs people a lot of time.
C．It contributes to deeper topics.
D．It provides much useful information.
C 解析：细节理解题。根据第三段中的“Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts don’t realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics.”可知，闲聊有助于引出更深层次的话题。故选C项。
7．What does the underlined phrase “mull over” in paragraph 3 probably mean?
A．Give up. B．Think over.
C．Write down. D．Forget about.
B 解析：词义猜测题。根据第三段中的“But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud.”可知，内向的人喜欢在说话前仔细斟酌，也就是说，他们回答前会仔细考虑不同的想法。think over意为“认真考虑”，符合语境。give up意为“放弃”；write down意为“写下；记下”；forget about意为“忘记”。故选B项。
8．How can we become a good talker in small conversations?
A．Figure out the deep meaning of questions.
B．Think twice before answering questions.
C．Try to find shared topics.
D．Be a quiet listener.
C 解析：推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.”可知，想要成为一个健谈的人，需要找到共同的话题。故选C项。
[长难句分析] However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time.(第三段第四句)
分析：本句是一个主从复合句，句子主语为introverts, feel是谓语，that引导宾语从句作feel的宾语；宾语从句中，the short amount of time is a waste of time 是句子主干， it takes to get into the real conversation是定语从句，修饰限定先行词the short amount of time, 从句中省略了引导词。
(2019·浙江重点高中联盟联考)The pumpkin(南瓜) theme is everywhere at Butler’s Orchard in Germantown, Maryland. It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin. There are also other things to do, like riding a pony, rushing down a slide or walking around a corn maze with its confusing winding pathways. Some children discover the big orange fruits way more than they think. Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers. Butler’s Orchard opened more than sixty years ago, as one of the first pick your own farms in the area.
Ken Merriam brought his children. He says Butler’s Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.“It’s a little bit of what I used to have as a kid, so that’s why I think it’s nice to bring them over here. Get them out of the city.” Shirley Butler’s grandchildren who are in their 30s are now the third generation to run the farm. General manager Tyler Butler says children who usually only see pumpkins in grocery stores can learn how pumpkins are grown.
“I didn’t know pumpkins came from a vine. There are flowers on this vine. There are roots.”These little girls are learning about pumpkins during their first trip to a pumpkin patch to feel the nature and the fruits. For Tristan Piazza’s mother, the Fall Festival is an annual event. “My parents have always brought me. I bring my kid now. I hope he stays in the area and he can bring his kids.” Since family funds are hard to keep__afloat these days, Tyler Butler appreciates the tens of thousands of visitors who come to the Fall Festival each year.
1．At Butler’s Orchard, visitors can experience ________.
A．picking vegetables in person
B．growing vegetables by themselves
C．tasting fruits off season
D．selling pumpkins online
A 解析：细节理解题。根据第一段倒数第二句“Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers.”可知，游客可以在Butler果园里亲自采摘当令的水果、蔬菜和鲜花。故选A项。
2．Why did Ken Merriam take his children to the farm?
A．They want to run it.
B．They want to grow vegetables.
C．It reminds him of his childhood.
D．It provides them with fun activities.
C 解析：细节理解题。根据第二段第二句“He says Butler’s Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.”可知，他带孩子来这里是因为这里让他想起了他的童年。故选C项。
3．Which of the following best explains “keep afloat”underlined in the last paragraph?
4．What’s the main idea of the passage?
A．The Fall Festival is an annual event.
B．Pumpkins at Butler’s Orchard are organic.
C．Pick your own farms are increasingly popular.
D．Butler’s Orchard strengthens the bond of the family.
[长难句分析] It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin.(第一段第二句)
分析：本句是一个主从复合句。主句是It has thousands of pumpkins, 后面的动名词短语作状语，状语中含有where 引导的定语从句，修饰先行词a pumpkin patch, where在从句中作地点状语。
Despite the negative international headlines that have hit Huawei over the past few months, its consumer business continues to thrive. The Chinese technology giant replaced Apple as the secondlargest smartphone player by global market share last year. It’s firmly the biggest vendor(销售商) in China.
Chinese consumers say they’ve been attracted to Huawei’s newest features, the price points and the fact that it’s a domestic brand.“Using Huawei’s mobile phones is supporting domestic brands. We hope our brands can go international，”Vikey, a Guangzhoubased Huawei user, told CNBC. She added that Huawei phones are “costeffective” and have good features while iPhones are “more of a trend”. One of the key features that Huawei introduced was a triplelens camera on its P20 Pro, which was launched last year.
For the next 12 months, the iPhone lacks one of the most appealing features of current winners in the Chinese smartphone market, the triplelens camera. The Huawei P20 Pro led the march.
Retailers(零售商) are slashing iPhone prices across China as consumers say the phones aren’t worth the cost. Apple’s latest iPhone models are facing huge discounts in China as retailers try to sell the struggling devices. That comes as the topoftheline Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are toohigh prices for the world’s largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei. The technology giant itself acknowledged earlier this month that unexpectedly low sales in the Chinese market would likely lead to worsethananticipated first quarter profits.
One of the most recent iPhone cost cuts in the country came from Suning, a large Chinese retailer, which changed the price of the 128GB version of the iPhone XR from 6，999 yuan to 5，799 yuan—a 1，200 yuan discount.
Other retailers in China are also putting their iPhones on sale. Sunion, an Apple reseller, was advertising 700 yuan off for both the 128GB and 256GB versions of the iPhone XR. Ecommerce site Pinduoduo, which allows thirdparties to sell products, also had hefty(很大的)discounts across all of the latest iPhone models.
5．What does the underlined word “thrive” probably mean in the first paragraph?
D 解析：词义猜测题。结合第一段第一句中的“Despite the negative international headlines that have hit Huawei over the past few months”，和对第一段的整体理解可推知，尽管华为在国际上遭遇暂时的挫折，但是其消费者业务持续增长，故选D。
6．Which of the following is one of the Huawei’s characters?
A．More of a trend.
D．A lack of innovative features.
B 解析：细节理解题。根据第二段中的“She added that Huawei phones are ‘costeffective’ and have good features while iPhones are ‘more of a trend’．”可知，华为手机有成本效益，故选B。
7．Which of the following is a medium?
C 解析：推理判断题。根据第二段中的“‘Using Huawei’s mobile phones is supporting domestic brands. We hope our brands can go international，’Vikey, a Guangzhoubased Huawei user, told CNBC.”可推知，CNBC是一个新闻媒体。
8．What can we infer from the text?
A．Updating of technology counts.
B．Advertising of the products matters.
C．The sale strategy is invisible.
D．The iPhone still leads the trend in China.
A 解析：推理判断题。根据第四段第三句“That comes as the topoftheline Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are toohigh prices for the world’s largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei.”可推知，技术革新是非常重要的，不革新就会落后于其他品牌，甚至被淘汰，故选A。
[长难句分析] That comes as the topoftheline Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are toohigh prices for the world’s largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei.(第四段第三句)
In 2015, a man named Nigel Richards memorized 386，000 words in the entire French Scrabble Dictionary in just nine weeks. However, he does not speak French. Richards’ impressive feat is a useful example to show how artificial intelligence works—real AI. Both of Richard and AI take in massive amounts of data to achieve goals with unlimited memory and superman accuracy in a certain field.
The potential applications for AI are extremely exciting. Because AI can outperform humans at routine tasks—provided the task is in one field with a lot of data—it is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so.
But not every job will be replaced by AI. In fact, four types of jobs are not at risk at all. First, there are creative jobs. AI needs to be given a goal to optimize. It cannot invent, like scientists, novelists and artists can. Second, the complex, strategic jobs—executives, diplomats, economists—go well beyond the AI limitation of singlefield and Big Data. Then there are the asyetunknown jobs that will be created by AI.
Are you worried that these three types of jobs won’t employ as many people as AI will replace? Not to worry, as the fourth type is much larger: jobs where emotions are needed, such as teachers, nannies and doctors. These jobs require compassion, trust and sympathy—which AI does not have. And even if AI tried to fake it, nobody would want a robot telling them they have cancer, or a robot to babysit their children.
So there will still be jobs in the age of AI. The key then must be retraining the workforce so people can do them. This must be the responsibility not just of the government, which can provide funds, but also of corporations and those who benefit most.
9．What is the main purpose of paragraph 1?
A．To introduce the topic.
B．To mention Nigel’s feat.
C．To stress the importance of good memory.
D．To suggest humans go beyond AI in memory.
10．Which of the following best explains “outperform” underlined in paragraph 2?
A．Be superior to. B．Be equal to.
C．Be similar to. D．Be related to.
A 解析：词义猜测题。根据第二段第二句中的“it is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so”可知，在未来15年左右，人工智能在技术方面可能会替代数亿个白领和蓝领的工作。由此可推知，此处outperform应意为“胜过，比……做得好”。故正确答案为A。
11．Which of the following jobs is the most likely to be replaced?
A．The writer. B．The shop assistant.
C．The babysitter. D．The psychologist.
12．What does the text suggest people do about job replacement of AI?
A．Limit the application of AI to a certain degree.
B．Get more support from the government.
C．Apply for the donation from companies.
D．Upgrade themselves all the time.
D 解析：推理判断题。根据最后一段第二句“The key then must be retraining the workforce so people can do them.”可推知，在人工智能时代，人类所能做的就是不断提升自己来适应时代的变化。故正确答案为D。
[长难句分析] Because AI can outperform humans at routine tasks—provided the task is in one field with a lot of data—it is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so.(第二段第二句)
(2019·浙江五校联考)When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible. Even my younger sister had got rid of them much earlier than me. But as I began to grow older, this changed.
All this happened on the Bike Safety Day. It is supposed to be a fun day at school when all of us kids bring our bikes to school and the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety. Sounds like fun, right? No. In fact, it caused me to panic. What was I going to say when my friends asked me about my training wheels?
With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels, I determined to let them go. This was the first big change I’d ever made on my own.
I went to my parents and told them all about my dilemma. They were more than happy to help. We went outside and got my bike. Instead of running away and hiding behind, I stood in front of my bike and took great pride in my decision as my dad removed the training wheels.
I got on and steadied myself. My heart raced but my feet and hands were calm. My dad started to push before my feet even moved and suddenly I was off. The fear faded away and a relaxed mind came into its place. It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try!
My confidence soared(高涨). This was going to be the start of a brand new world for me. My accomplishment would carry me forth to new goals and wins. I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.
1．What does the school expect the students to do on Bike Safety Day?
A．Have their bikes checked.
B．Ride outside for fun.
C．Acquire bike safety skills.
D．Remove the training wheels.
C 解析：细节理解题。根据第二段中的“the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety”可知，学校想让学生在“自行车安全日”学会一些自行车安全技能，故选C项。
2．What does the underlined word “them” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A．The author’s friends.
B．The author’s parents.
C．The safety problems.
D．The training wheels.
D 解析：代词指代题。根据语境及画线所在句的前半部分“With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels”可知，作者迫于害怕别人看见自己的自行车稳定轮的压力才决心去掉它们，故画线词指的就是“稳定轮”，故选D项。
3．What happened when the author finally rode without the training wheels?
A．She felt extremely embarrassed.
B．Everything turned out to be easy.
C．She ended up falling down.
D．Her sisters followed her example.
B 解析：推理判断题。根据倒数第二段最后一句“It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try！”可知，长时间不敢尝试的东西，作者竟学得很快，由此对于作者来说骑没有稳定轮的自行车后，事情变得容易了，故选B项。
4．What does the author think is necessary for her to achieve a goal?
B 解析：推理判断题。根据最后一段最后一句“I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.”可知，作者意识到如果自己下定决心做一件事的话，自己就会做到。由此可推知，作者认为对于她来说实现一个目标的关键在于决心，故选B项。
[长难句分析] When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible.(第一段第一句)
分析：本句是一个主从复合句。I was the girl为句子的主干；句中When引导时间状语从句；who引导定语从句修饰the girl。
About 1.5 billion people speak English around the world. But for more than 1.1 billion of them, English is their second language—often with a noticeable accent.
“Someone’s accent really reveals a lot about who they are and their identity. It will tell people what their native language is and probably where they come from，” says Marc Pell, a communications professor at McGill University in Montreal. And according to Pell, one reaction to it can be a bias(偏见) against that person.
Previous research that has been done elsewhere showed that people who have an accent tend to be trusted less, simply because they have an accent. But accents aren’t the only thing we listen for when we have to decide if we trust another person. Tone of voice also plays a role. Pell and his team wanted to know if people would trust a confident tone, even if it came from someone with an accent.
The researchers had Canadian English speakers listen to different versions of people saying neutral(无明显特性的) statements like “she has access to the building” while they were getting a brain scan in an MRI(磁共振成像) machine. Subjects heard someone say it with a confident tone with a Canadian English accent, an Australian accent or a French accent. Participants also heard the sentence with the three accents spoken in a doubtful or neutral tone.
The MRI scans showed that the participants had to use more brain power to decide if they could trust the statements said with the nonnative accents. When the study participants heard the Australian or French accents, blood flow increased to the part of the brain that we use to process sound. They seemed to have to analyze that perhaps more carefully, or for a longer period of time to make this decision about whether they truly believed the speaker, especially when the speaker sounded doubtful. When asked, the participants reported not trusting either Australian or French accents—except when the statements were said confidently. It seems that confidence speaks for itself.
5．What does the underlined word “it” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A．A person’s accent.
B．A person’s identity.
C．A person’s hometown.
D．A person’s native language.
A 解析：代词指代题。根据第二段内容可知，Marc Pell认为，人的口音能透露出一个人的身份和母语，还有可能揭示他来自哪里，人们可能会因一个人的口音而对他产生一定的偏见。由此可推知，it指的是“一个人的口音”。故正确答案为A。
6．What did Pell’s team want to know?
A．Why some people trust others less.
B．Which parts of the brain deal with sound.
C．What can cause a bias against nonnatives.
D．Whether a nonnative’s confident tone can gain trust.
D 解析：细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句“Pell and his team wanted to know if people would trust a confident tone, even if it came from someone with an accent.”可知，Pell的团队想知道人们是否会信任带有口音的自信语调。故正确答案为D。
7．For the study participants, which of the following might demand the most brain power?
A．A Canadian speaking English in a friendly way.
B．A French person speaking English neutrally.
C．An American speaking English confidently.
D．An Australian speaking English doubtfully.
D 解析：推理判断题。根据第五段第一至第三句“The MRI scans showed that the participants had to use more brain power to decide if they could trust the statements said with the nonnative accents...They seemed to have to analyze that perhaps more carefully, or for a longer period of time to make this decision about whether they truly believed the speaker, especially when the speaker sounded doubtful.”可知，当面临用迟疑的语气说出的带口音的话语时，参与者需要耗费更多的脑力去判断其是否可信。由此可推知，在面对一位用迟疑的语气说英语的澳大利亚人时，人们需要耗费更多的脑力去判断其是否可信。故正确答案为D。
8．Where does this text most probably come from?
A．A research plan. B．A health magazine.
C．An academic journal. D．A languagelearning guide.
[长难句分析] Previous research that has been done elsewhere showed that people who have an accent tend to be trusted less, simply because they have an accent.(第三段第一句)
Along with the progress of reform and opening up, the Chinese film industry has also made remarkable achievements and become in a flourishing(繁荣的) state in economic growth. It has recorded social changes in the past decades through the medium of the film. The film market of China has been much better than that of North America, becoming the largest in the world during the first season of 2019.
In the original stage of reform and opening up, old Chinese movies were rescreened and foreign movies dubbed(译制). Audiences’ enthusiasm for movies was lighted up by both these practices. In 1979, the attendance of Chinese moviegoers reached a record high of 29.3 billion. However, televisions and other entertainment activities sprang up in the late 1980s and drew many audiences away from movies when the film market faced a danger.
The employment of a socialist market economy in China in 1992 brought energy again to the film industry. With the introduction of free competition and reforms, it made an abundant recovery and experienced rapid growth. In the same period, China began to introduce overseas movies into the home market, especially those from Hollywood. Despite the argument that foreign movies occupy the space of homemade ones, Chinese movies with increasingly higher quality have gained a firm foothold in the local market with box offices setting several new records.
The development of the Internet has added new energy to the Chinese film industry. In 2015, the powerful Internet companies, one called Tencent and another Alibaba, developed their own film aim and began to adapt popular online stories for movies. With big data, more accurate marketing skills can target specific audiences to satisfy their personal preferences. Yet the development of online cinemas may pose threats to the survival of offline ones. Now the film industry is exploring more advanced film screening technologies to provide audiences with an improved movie experience.
9．Which threat did the Chinese film market face in the late 1980s?
A．Popularity of televisions.
B．Development of online cinemas.
C．A slowdown in economic growth.
D．Introduction of overseas movies.
A 解析：细节理解题。由第二段中的“However, televisions and other entertainment activities sprang up in the late 1980s and drew many audiences away from movies when the film market faced a danger.”可知，中国电影业在20世纪80年代末期因电视和其他娱乐活动的突然兴起而面临威胁，故选项A正确。
10．What does the underlined word “it” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A．The space of Chinese movies.
B．The Chinese film industry.
C．The socialist market economy.
D．The introduction of reform and opening up.
B 解析：代词指代题。由上文的“when the film market faced a danger” “The employment of a socialist market economy in China in 1992 brought energy again to the film industry.”和下文中的“China began to introduce overseas movies into the home market” “Chinese movies with increasingly higher quality have gained a firm foothold”可推知，画线词指代“the Chinese film industry”。
11．What does the author indicate in the end?
A．Online cinemas will replace traditional ones sooner.
B．The film screening technology is the key to films’ success.
C．The Internet is a twoedged sword for the film industry.
D．Movies made by Tencent and Alibaba are most successful.
C 解析：推理判断题。综合分析最后一段中的“The development of the Internet has added new energy to the Chinese film industry.”和“Yet the development of online cinemas may pose threats to the survival of offline ones.”可知，互联网的发展对电影产业的发展有利有弊，故选C项。
12．What would be the best title for the text?
A．The Everchanging Film Market
B．Popular Online Films
C．Advanced Film Technologies
D．Flourishing Chinese Film Industry
D 解析：标题归纳题。由文章的首句“Along with...the Chinese film industry has also made remarkable achievements and become in a flourishing(繁荣的) state in economic growth.”及全文的叙述即可概括文章主旨为中国电影业的繁荣发展，故选项D最适合作文章的标题。
(2019·浙江六校协作体联考)One form of social prejudice against older people is the belief that they cannot understand or use modern technology. Activities like playing computer games, going on the Net and downloading MP3s are only for the youngsters. Isn’t it unfair that older people enjoying a computer game should be frowned upon by their children and grandchildren?
Nowadays older people have more control over their lives and they play a full part in society. Moreover, better health care has left more people in their sixties and seventies feeling fit and active after retirement. Mental activity, as well as physical exercise, can contribute to better health. Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.
When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didn’t believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it. Now computers have been around for a few generations and retired people have gradually become more relaxed about using them for fun. Gamers over 65 prefer playing puzzle games and card games. Kate Stevens, aged 72, says, “I find it very relaxing. It’s not very demanding, but you still need to concentrate.”
Another development that has favored “grey gamers” is a change in the type of videogames available on the market. There’s a greater variety of games to choose from, including more intellectual and complex strategy and simulation(模拟) games. Internet Chess and Train Simulator are among the most popular of these. Train Simulator is based on realworld activities. Players can choose from a variety of challengers, such as keeping to a stricttimetable and using helper engines during a winter storm.
Some people argue that “grey gamers” simply don’t have the skills required for computer games, and that teenagers are better. This__couldn’t__be__further__from__the__truth. Most computer games require the kind of analytical thinking that improves with practice, which means that the “grey gamers” may well be far better than gamers half a century younger than them. In games where speed is the main consideration, older people would be at a disadvantage because they may have slower reaction time. On the other hand, “grey gamers” have a preference for slower paced, mind challenging games.
1．What is the purpose of paragraph 2?
A．To show the best way to exercise the brain.
B．To stress the importance of good health.
C．To explain why grey gamers exist.
D．To teach how to play videogames.
2．What was older people’s attitude towards personal computers at first?
A 解析：观点态度题。根据第三段第一句“When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didn’t believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it.”可知，老年人起初对电脑持怀疑态度。故A项正确。
3．Which method does the author use to develop paragraph 4?
B 解析：写作手法题。通读第四段可知，第四段首句讲另一个有利于老龄玩家的发展是在市场上可找到的电子游戏的类型的改变，然后通过举例介绍了Internet Chess和Train Simulator这样的游戏。所以作者采用了举例说明的方法。故B项正确。
4．What does the author mean by saying “This couldn’t be further from the truth.” in paragraph 5?
A．Mind challenging games are not suitable for older people.
B．Children should improve their skills with practice.
C．Playing computer games requires analytical thinking.
D．Older people can perform well in some computer games.
[长难句分析] Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.(第二段最后一句)
分析：Playing computer games为动名词短语作主语，谓语动词用单数形式。
It was the beginning of another school year. I had agreed to teach all struggling students in need of critical intervention(介入). I knew what lay ahead—tough work hours overlaid with guilt, consumed with essays that needed feedback and lesson plans with best practice strategies. No wonder people always acknowledge my teaching career with, “I’m__glad__it’s__you__and__not__me.”
Suddenly, my mind transported me to my first few years of teaching.
“Peter Potter，” I called from my name list, trying to control my laughter. “Laughlin McLaughlin？” Surely these were not real names.
“Emotionally disabled...keeps them separated from the other kids...，” the vice headmaster commanded. This was my first teaching assignment.
Surely this year could never be as discouraging as those first few. In my new classroom, I looked into the face of Jason. At eleven, his mother was killed in an accident, leaving him with physical, academic, and certainly emotional scars. I looked at another student, Robert, standing at the door; my vice headmaster asked if I would take him, even though he was an eleventh grader in my tenth grade class.
But then there were—and are—stories of success—of Dustin, in Graduate School for Electrical and Computer Engineering; of Michael, now a teacher in a city school; of Willie...I thought of the thousands of students whose lives have touched mine far more than I could have ever touched theirs.
I broke from my daydream, a smile spreading across my face. Sadness, tears, challenges, fears—yes, teaching is filled with all of these—yet, it is also filled with laughter and smiles, hope, dreams, and rewards beyond measure.
“I’m glad it’s you and not me.” Those words resounded in my mind once again.
5．What might the author’s job be like?
D 解析：推理判断题。根据第一段中的“I knew what lay ahead—tough work hours overlaid with guilt, consumed with essays that needed feedback and lesson plans with best practice strategies.”可知，摆在作者面前的是充满内疚感的艰难工作、需要反馈的文章和关于最佳实践策略的课程计划，由此可见作者的工作是具有挑战性的。故选D项。
6．What does the underlined sentence imply?
A．These people would like to teach.
B．These people did not like the author.
C．These people would not want this job.
D．These people wanted to learn from the author.
C 解析：句意理解题。根据画线部分所在句“No wonder people always acknowledge my teaching career with, ‘I’m glad it’s you and not me’．”(难怪人们总是以“很高兴是你而不是我从事这项工作”来评价我的教学生涯)以及前文所述的教学工作的艰巨性可知，此句话暗示说这些话的人们不愿意做这样的工作。故选C项。
7．Why did the author mention Jason and Robert?
A．To stress the importance of family education.
B．To show her regrets about taking up teaching.
C．To express her dissatisfaction with the school.
D．To introduce the basic situation of her students.
8．How did the author feel thinking of the successful students?
A．She was doing a worthwhile job.
B．She could never go back to the past.
C．She was the inspiration behind the success stories.
D．She would never make greater achievements in the future.
A 解析：推理判断题。根据第六段中的“I thought of the thousands of students whose lives have touched mine far more than I could have ever touched theirs.”可知，作者想起了成千上万的学生，他们的生活对作者的影响远远超过作者对他们生活的影响，这说明作者认为自己的工作是值得的，故选A项。
It’s not easy feeling like you’re always under the spotlight being judged for each little mistake you make. Your mind is in an endless circle playing what you said and did over and over again. You wish you had a time capsule to go back and make things right if you find mistakes. You fear what others will think about you and that they will reject and dislike you. You seek to be socially perfect.
Academically, you work long endless hours just to make those excellent marks. Although most would say “it’s good to have high standards”， they have no idea about the internal hell you put yourself through to achieve perfection. If you come up less than your desired goal you feel as though you have failed, but you’re far from failing, you just don’t see it that way. So instead you are telling yourself that you’re stupid, and not smart. The pressure you place on yourself weighs you down and you wear the “not good enough” label each and every day.
You not only have high standards for yourself but you also have them for others. If people don’t perform up to your expectations, then you think they are incompetent. This causes a lot of frustration because you can’t trust anyone to get things right. So instead of being a team player you fly solo(单飞) and try to do two or three jobs at once. Your unrealistic expectations cause you to criticize and judge others and that leads to problems in other areas of your life.
The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism and it’s the unachievable American dream that’s damaging our emotional and mental health. We strive for perfection with our body, in our performance, and in our relationships. In a society that overstates mistakes, is it any wonder that so many young people attempt the impossible task of being perfect?
We all have flaws, fears, and make mistakes, and that’s perfectly OK. It’s our imperfections that make life interesting and they help us grow into a stronger and more adaptable person. We don’t have to strive to achieve the impossible. We are designed to be perfectly imperfect.
9．What might be the most suitable title of the text?
A．Far from Failing
D．Unachievable American Dream
B 解析：标题归纳题。文章通篇讨论完美主义者的心态和做法，并在最后一段得出结论“It’s our imperfections that make life interesting and they help...We don’t have to strive to achieve the impossible. We are designed to be perfectly imperfect.”，由此可知，正是我们的“不完美”使得我们的生活变得有趣，帮助我们成为更强大且适应性更强的人，我们没必要去实现不可能的事情，不完美反而造就更好的我们。故选B项。
10．Which of the following is a perfectionist most likely to agree?
A．Nobody is perfect.
B．Be generous with praise.
C．There is no best, only better.
D．A contented mind is an everlasting feast.
C 解析：细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句中的“you wear the ‘not good enough’ label each and every day”可知，完美主义者总认为自己不够好。C项(没有最好，只有更好)符合完美主义者的心态。故选C项。
11．What can we infer from the underlined sentence in paragraph 4?
A．More and more people are tolerating mistakes.
B．The society is partly to blame for perfectionism.
C．Many young people find it impossible to be perfect.
D．It’s unusual for a society to seek perfectionism nowadays.
B 解析：句意理解题。根据第四段中的“The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism and...in our relationships.”可知，美国梦就是追求完美，这个无法实现的梦想正在破坏着我们的情感和心理健康。美国梦代表的是美国社会，而这个夸大错误、追求完美的社会对年轻人追求完美的行为产生了一定影响，所以这个社会应为完美主义负部分责任。故选B项。
12．What does the author think of imperfection?
A．It’s part of our life.
C．It deserves to be overcome.
D．It does harm to our mental health.