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2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题
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2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题01
2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题02
2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题03
2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题04
2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题05
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2020浙江高考英语二轮讲义:专题一第二部分题型应对策略第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题

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第四讲 根据上下文推断词句的含义——词句猜测题

词句猜测题旨在考查考生根据上下文推断单词、短语或句子的本意或外延含义的能力既可以考查生词的意义也可以考查熟词的新意还可以是对替代词所替代内容的判断。

除了直接的命题外在阅读理解的文章中常常有一些单词或短语超出了考试大纲但又没有附加注释也需要考生猜测词义才能准确理解文章这是词义猜测题的一种简单命题形式。

高考词句猜测题题量统计

考纲解读

年份

浙江卷

(1)正确理解文章中单词或短语的含义是理解文章的第一步也是理解文章的基础。

(2)英语单词的含义并非完全等同于词典中所标注的汉语意思其含义在不同的语境中会有所不同。能根据上下文正确理解灵活变化的词义才算是真正初步具备了一定的阅读理解能力。

(3)阅读文章时常常会遇到一些过去未见过的词但这类生词的词义可以通过上下文推断出来这是阅读理解中经常考查的一种能力。

2019.6

1(句子Money with no strings attached的含义)

2018.11

1(短语get bogged down的含义)

2018.6

1(单词headwinds的含义)

2017.11

1(短句work it out of her system的含义)

2017.6

1(句子The cat’s lot was about to improve的含义)

 

考查特点

.把握词句猜测题最常见的命题方式:

(1)The phrase“...” in the sentence could be replaced by “________

(2)The underlined word “...” in  paragraph...refers to ________

(3)What is the meaning of the underlined word in the...paragraph/What does the underlined word mean in the...paragraph?

(4)Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the phrase “...”

(5)The underlined word “...” most probably means “________”

(6)The underlined sentence in the second paragraph implies that ________

.掌握词句猜测题的考查角度:

(1)猜测生词或熟词的含义。

(2)猜测短语的意义。

(3)猜测替代词所替代的内容(itonetheythisthatthesethose)

(4)猜测句意。

 词义猜测题——语境分析猜词义

无论是直接的词义猜测题还是文章中需要理解的生词考生都可以利用构词法、同义词、近义词、反义词、逻辑关系、定义和解释、例证、同等关系及生活常识和文化背景等方法猜出单词或短语的意思这些方法体现了高考对考生的文化品格要求越来越高。掌握了这些方法考生猜测词义的准确度也会越来越高。

1利用构词法猜词义

阅读中常常会遇到一些由熟悉的单词派生或合成的新词考生可以根据构词法猜测词义。

构词法有合成法、派生法和转换法(即单词的词性转变而词形不变)

[典例] (2018·北京卷·D片段)A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol­powered private cars worldwide with electric, self­driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride­hailing services, considering the cost of self­driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.

49What does the underlined word fielded in Paragraph 4 probably mean?

AEmployed.         BReplaced.

CShared.  DReduced.

[解析] A 词义猜测题。利用构词法解题。field常用作名词 表示场地领域此处用作动词引申为使用应用。根据上段中画线词所在句的前半部分内容The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly并结合下句中的as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology可知随着价格的降低以及人们对这项技术开始应用自如,第一批上市的无人驾驶车辆会被应用叫车服务中。故选A

2利用同义、近义词猜词义

在生词所出现的上下文中有时会出现与之同义或近义的词语或结构这时可从熟悉的词语中推知生词的含义。表示同义或近义的信号词/词组常见的有:andorsimilarlylikewise等。

[典例] (2017·全国卷·A片段)By translating the rich and humorous text of Loves Labours Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeares comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience.

[点拨] 根据上文中的By translating the rich and humorous text of Loves Labours Lost into the physical language of BSL中的translating可知interpretationtranslating同义意为:翻译

3利用反义词猜词义

有时作者会用表示对比或转折的信号词连接意思相反的两个词或句子这时就可根据反义词线索猜测词义。表示对比或反义的信号词/词组常见的有:(whether)..orunlikebutyethoweverwhilealthoughneverthelessinsteadrather thanin contraston the contraryon the other hand等。

[典例] (福建卷·E片段)If you’re tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming boredyou can attend an upbeat group fitness class thatll keep your workout on track.

73The underlined word upbeat in the second paragraph probably means ________”

Acheerful   Baverage

Cserious   Dtemporary

[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据上文语境可知upbeat应与上文中的tired of意义相反可猜测为快乐的乐观的故选A

4利用逻辑关系猜词义

任何一篇文章中的句子在内容上都不是绝对孤立的都跟句子所在的段落及整篇文章有关。考生可以利用上下文提供的情景和线索,进行合乎逻辑的综合分析进而推测词义。常见的上下文之间的关系有:因果关系、转折关系、并列关系、递进关系、解释关系等。

[典例] (2019·北京卷·D片段)Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the oceans warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.

43What does the underlined word vulnerable in  Paragraph 3 probably mean?

ASensitive.   BBeneficial.

CSignificant.   DUnnoticeable.

[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据上段尾句Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth...but also nutrients.可知温度变化对phytoplankton有很大的影响;由此可推知phytoplankton对海洋的温度很敏感。故选A

5利用例证猜词义

为了说明或证实文章中经常会举例往往用来列举说明前面较难理解的词这些例子可以帮助考生猜测生词。举例时常常会用一些连接性的词such aslike, for example, for instance等。

[典例] (2018·全国卷·C片段)In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation­state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

29Which of the following best explains dominant underlined in paragraph 2?

AComplex.   BAdvanced. 

CPowerful.   DModern.

[解析] C 词义猜测题。根dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over可知英语、西班牙语和汉语正在替代其他语言。由此推知dominant languages意为强有力的语言。故选C

6利用同等关系猜词义

同等关系是指一个词、一个词组或短语在句中作同一成分而且他们的词义属于同一范畴。只要认出其中一个或几个词或短语即可以确定同等关系中生词的词性、作用和大概的意思。常见的表示同等关系的信号词有:ornamely, that is, in other words, that is to say, to be more exact, to put in another way等。

[典例] (2018·全国卷·B片段)If you have a__juicer,__you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a “softserve” creamy dessert, to be eaten right away. This makes a fun activity for a childrens party; they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below.

26What is “a juicer” in the last paragraph?

AA dessert.        BA drink.

CA container.   DA machine.

[解析] D 本段对juicer的功能做了描述从其中的you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a softserve creamy dessert...这些字眼可以看出juicer是一种机器是一种将冷冻的香蕉、浆果等制成果汁的机器此外最后一句中的they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below明确指出画线词指的是一种机器(榨汁机)。故选D

7利用生活常识和文化背景猜词义

[典例] (2019·全国卷·B片段)But he’s nervous. I’m here to tell you today why you should...should... Chris trips on the ­ld a pronunciation difficulty for many non­native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. ...Vote for...me... Except for some stumbles,__Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.

25What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to?

AImproper pauses.   BBad manners.

CSpelling mistakes.   DSilly jokes.

[解析] A 词义猜测题。根据文章内容可知老师借助竞选演说鼓励同学们学会赞美自己。文中Chris Palaez的母语不是英语他学英语才三年多说话不流利而且他在演讲时非常紧张所以说话磕磕绊绊故选A

 代词指代题——就近原则判指代

此类题目要求考生根据语境判断代词(this, that, it, they, them, one, which)究竟指代什么。

[典例] (2017·全国卷·C片段)Despite the celebrations, though, in the US. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.

Its Jason Morans job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.

29What does the underlined word that in paragraph 3 refer to?

AJazz becoming more accessible.

BThe production of jazz growing faster.

CJazz being less popular with the young.

DThe jazz audience becoming larger.

第一步 确定题干中的关键信息

the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3

第二步 定位到原句并找出该词所代替的内容

the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations

第三步 综合判断得出答案

由关键句可知that指代爵士乐听众的数量减少并且趋于老龄化不受年轻人喜欢的现状。

自主解答:C

代词指代判断三法

1返回原文找出指代词(it, they, them, this)

2向上(有时向下)搜索找最近的名词、代词、短语或句子(就近原则)

3将找到的词、词组或句子代入替换该指代词看其意思、逻辑关系是否通顺并最终确定最佳答案。 

 句意猜测题——意义吻合定句意

高考阅读理解有时对某一个句子的外延含义进行考查,因此要求考生准确理解前后句所表达的含义,巧解句意猜测题。

[典例] (2019·浙江卷6·B片段)Money with no strings attached. It’s not something you see every day. But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month, a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read, Give What You Can, Take What You Need.

24What does the expression money with no strings attached in paragraph 1 mean?

AMoney spent without hesitation.

BMoney not legally made.

CMoney offered without conditions.

DMoney not tied together.

第一步 确定题干中的关键信息

“money with no strings attached” in paragraph 1

第二步 定位到原句并找出与该句相关的信息句

Give What You Can, Take What You Need.

第三步 综合判断得出答案

尽你所能取你所需可知此处money with no strings attached的意思应该是无条件提供钱

自主解答:C

句意猜测两注意

句意猜测题要求考生通过阅读文章用合适的语句对其进行解释性的描述。

1返回原文找到该句对原句进行语法和逻辑关系的准确分析。对需要推理的句意理解首先要理解句子前后的语境其次对此句在文章中的意思进行合理的推断最后再归纳总结。

2一般来说正确选项的意思与原句的意思完全相同只是用其他的英语词汇和句式来表达相同的意思。 

(2019·天津卷·D)Would you BET on the future of this manHe is 53 years old. Most of his adult life has been a losing struggle against debt and misfortune. A war injury has made his left hand stop functioningand he has often been in prison. Driven by heaven­knows­what motiveshe determines to write a book.

The book turns out to be one that has appealed to the world for more than 350 years. That former prisoner was Cervantes, and the book was Don Quixote(《堂吉诃德》). And the story poses an interesting question: why do some people discover new vitality and creativity to the end of their dayswhile others go to seed long before?

Weve all known people who run out of steam before they reach lifes halfway mark. Im not talking about those who fail to get to the top. We cant all get there. Im talking about people who have stopped learning on growing because they have adopted the fixed attitudes and opinions that all too often come with passing years.

Most of usin fact, progressively narrow the variety of our lives. We succeed in our field of specialization and then become trapped in it. Nothing surprises us. We lose our sense of wonder. Butif we are willing to learnthe opportunities are everywhere.

The things we learn in maturity seldom involve information and skills. We learn to bear with the things we cant change. We learn to avoid self­pity. We learn that however much we try to pleasesome people are never going to love usan idea that troubles at first but is eventually relaxing.

With high motivation and enthusiasmwe can keep on learning. Then we will know how important it is to have meaning in our life. However, we can achieve meaning only if we have made a commitment to something larger than our own little egos(自我), whether to loved ones, to fellow humans, to work, or to some moral concept.

Many of us equate(……等同于) “commitment” with such “caring” occupations as teaching and nursing. But doing any ordinary job as well as one can is in itself an admirable commitment. People who work toward such excellence—whether they are driving a truckor running a store—make the world better just by being the kind of people they are. They’ve learned life’s most valuable lesson.

解题导语】 本文从西班牙文学巨匠塞万提斯讲起告诉我们不论身处哪个年龄阶段,只要有目标,并且愿意学习,我们就可能取得成功。

51The passage starts with the story of Cervantes to show that________

Aloss of freedom stimulates ones creativity

Bage is not a barrier to achieving ones goal

Cmisery inspires a man to fight against his fate

Ddisability cannot stop a man’s pursuit of success

B 解析:推理判断题。根据第一、二段可知塞万提斯成年后生活坎坷但他决心写一本书结果这本书畅销了350多年有些人直到生命的最后时刻都在发现新的活力和创意。由此可推知作者以塞万提斯的故事开头是为了告诉我们年龄不是实现目标的障碍。

52What does the underlined part in Paragraph 3 probably mean?

AEnd ones struggle for liberty.

BWaste ones energy taking risks.

CMiss the opportunity to succeed.

DLose the interest to continue learning.

D 解析:词义猜测题。根据语境并结合画线短语所在句可知人们在还没到达人生的中点之前就失去了兴趣。故选D

53What could be inferred from Paragraph 4?

AThose who dare to try often get themselves trapped.

BThose who tend to think back can hardly go ahead.

COpportunity favors those with a curious mind.

DOpportunity awaits those with a cautious mind.

C 解析:推理判断题。通读第四段可知该段是说我们中大多数人总是减少自己生活的多样性困在自己的专业领域没有什么能给我们带来惊喜但是只要我们愿意学到处都是机会。由此可推知机会青睐求知欲强的人。

54What does the author intend to tell us in Paragraph 5?

AA tough man can tolerate suffering.

BA wise man can live without self­pity.

CA man should try to satisfy people around him.

DA man should learn suitable ways to deal with life.

D 解析:推理判断题。通读第五段可知该段说到我们成熟之后学会忍受自己改变不了的事,学会避免自我哀怜;知道有些人是我们无论怎么做都讨好不了的,这种想法最初会困扰我们,但最终我们会感到释然。由此可知,作者在第五段想告诉我们应该学会用合适的方式对待生活。故选D

55What is the authors purpose in writing the passage?

ATo provide guidance on leading a meaningful adult life.

BTo stress the need of shouldering responsibilities at work.

CTo state the importance of generating motivation for learning.

DTo suggest a way of pursuing excellence in our lifelong career.

A 解析:写作意图题。通读全文可知本文通过塞万提斯的经历告诉我们要让自己成年的生活充满意义。

A

(2019·杭州一中模拟)When she first started learning about the climate change from one of her elders, Fawn Sharp was invited on a helicopter flight over the Olympic Mountains to survey the Mount Anderson glacier. But the glacier was gone, melted by the warming climate. Sharp had a deep sense of loss when she discovered the glacier wasnt there any more.

Loss is a growing issue for people working and living on the front lines of climate change. And that gave Jennifer Wren Atkinson, a full­time lecturer at the University of Washington Bothell, US, an idea for a class.

This term, she taught students on the Bothell campus about the emotional burdens of environmental study. She used the experiences of Native American tribes, scientists and activists, and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fixthat this is such an intractable problem that they’re going to be dealing with it for the rest of their lives.

Student Cody Dillon used to be a climate science skeptic(怀疑论者). Then he did his own reading and research, and changed his mind.

Dillon wasnt going into environmental workhe was a computer­science major. Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full­time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.

Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinsons class was just what he was looking fora place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.

Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.

We are already changing the planetso many species are going to be lost, displaced or massively impacted she said. The future isnt going to be what they imagined.

解题导语 本文是一篇新闻报道。文章主要报道了Jennifer Wren Atkinson给同学们上环境研究的情感负担课意在通过这类课程告诉学生气候变化日益严峻没人能够独善其身因此要更加关注环境问题。

1Why did the author mention the case of Fawn Sharp?

ATo lay a basis for Fawn Sharps further research.

BTo prove Fawn Sharps work is similar to Atkinson’s.

CTo lead into the issue of loss caused by climate change.

DTo show scientists concern about the Mount Anderson glacier.

C 析:推理判断题。根据第一段内容可知Fawn Sharp被邀请乘坐直升机飞越奥林匹克山脉调查Mount Anderson冰川。但是因气候变暖冰川融化消失了Fawn Sharp 发现冰川已经不在那里时她有一种深深的失落感。由此可推知作者通过Fawn Sharp发现冰山消失以及她的感受来引入气候变化导致环境损失的主题。故选C

2Whats the main purpose of Atkinsons class?

ATo explore how different people deal with climate change.

BTo get students more concerned about environmental issue.

CTo find solutions to the Olympic Mountains environmental issue.

DTo teach students how to conduct a research about environment.

B 解析:细节理解题。根据倒数第二段Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.可知Atkinson的课的主要目的是让学生更加关注环境问题。故选B

3Which of the following best explains the underlined word “intractable” in paragraph 3?

ASimple.        BDifficult.

CComplicated.   DInteresting.

B 解析:词义猜测题。根据本句中的and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fix可知Atkinson让她的24名学生面对这样一个现实:没有简单的解决办法;再根据破折号可知此处表示这是一个如此棘手的问题他们将在余生中处理它。由此可推知intractable意为困难的difficult意义相近。故选B

4How did Atkinsons class influence Dillon?

ADillon worked as a part­time volunteer for restoration projects.

BIt made him realize a planet­wide climate disaster would happen.

CIt encouraged him to be more involved in environmental protection.

DIt discouraged him to work on restoration projects for the environment.

C 解析:推理判断题。根据第五段第二句Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full­time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.可知五年前Dillon认为世界环境灾难的可能性是如此真实以至于他辞去了工作成了一名致力于修复项目的环保组织的全职志愿者;又根据第六段Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinsons class was just what he was looking fora place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.可知工作六个月后他认为Atkinson的课正是他想要的——一个他可以讨论他对不断变化的气候的担忧的地方。由此可推知Atkinson的课鼓励了Dillon更多地参与环境保护。故选C

[长难句分析] Yetthe potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full­time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.(第五段第二句)

分析:本句是一个复合句。so...(第一个)that...引导结果状语从句;第二个that引导定语从句修饰先行词an environmental group

译文:然而五年前Dillon认为世界环境灾难的可能性看起来如此真实以至于他辞去了工作成了一名致力于修复项目的环保组织的全职志愿者。

B

(2019·金华十校模拟)Have you ever caught yourself saying I hate small talk the minute you walk into a party? If so, you might be an introvert(内向的人). Introverts hate to chat about “small” subjects with people. They are fine when you talk one­on­one but seem to get lost in the crowd when there’s a group around.

If youre talking to an introvert, you might find that your first few conversations go one of two ways. Either they’ll seem to get bored and not say much or they’ll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more in­depth topics. What you need to know is that the introvert are not being rude. It’s just that they don’t like small talk. Here’s why.

Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts dont realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics. You dont need to stay on small talk forever. However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time. Small talk is very fast. Someone says something and this should be followed up with a quick response. But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud. Before they answer, theyll mull__over different thoughts.

Small talk in its very nature invites more people to join in. The more people who join in the conversation, the more the introvert will tend to step back. As a result, they’ll be quiet.

Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.

The listening involved with small talk is not in­depth. The purpose is about listening lightly so you can figure out the right topics to spend some time on. Introverts tend to be great listeners, but they use active listening rather than light listening. This makes them wonderful friends, but can also make it difficult for new people to understand why theyre so quiet.

解题导语 本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了内向的人不喜欢闲聊及其原因引导我们正确地认识闲聊的作用并理解内向的人。

5How do introverts respond to a chat?

AThey try to avoid it.

BThey get excited about it.

CThey give it their full attention.

DThey focus on unimportant topics.

A 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段中的Either theyll seem to get bored and not say much or theyll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more in­depth topics.可知性格内向者要么很厌烦不想多说要么避免闲谈。故选A项。

6What do we know about small talk?

AIt goes slowly.

BIt costs people a lot of time.

CIt contributes to deeper topics.

DIt provides much useful information.

C 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts dont realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics.可知闲聊有助于引出更深层次的话题。故选C项。

7What does the underlined phrase “mull over” in paragraph 3 probably mean?

AGive up.   BThink over.

CWrite down.   DForget about.

B 解析:词义猜测题。根据第三段中的But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud.可知内向的人喜欢在说话前仔细斟酌也就是说他们回答前会仔细考虑不同的想法。think over意为认真考虑符合语境。give up意为放弃write down意为写下;记下forget about意为忘记。故选B项。

8How can we become a good talker in small conversations?

AFigure out the deep meaning of questions.

BThink twice before answering questions.

CTry to find shared topics.

DBe a quiet listener.

C 解析:推理判断题。根据倒数第二段Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.可知想要成为一个健谈的人需要找到共同的话题。故选C项。

[长难句分析] However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time.(第三段第四句)

分析:本句是一个主从复合句,句子主语为introverts, feel是谓语that引导宾语从句作feel的宾语;宾语从句中the short amount of time is a waste of time 是句子主干 it takes to get into the real conversation是定语从句修饰限定先行词the short amount of time, 从句中省略了引导词。

译文:然而有时候性格内向者感觉甚至用很短的时间来进入真正的谈话都是浪费时间。

词句猜测题——词义猜测题

(建议用时:25分钟)

A

(2019·浙江重点高中联盟联考)The pumpkin(南瓜) theme is everywhere at Butler’s Orchard in Germantown, Maryland. It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin. There are also other things to do, like riding a pony, rushing down a slide or walking around a corn maze with its confusing winding pathways. Some children discover the big orange fruits way more than they think. Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers. Butlers Orchard opened more than sixty years ago, as one of the first pick your own farms in the area.

Ken Merriam brought his children. He says Butler’s Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.It’s a little bit of what I used to have as a kid, so thats why I think its nice to bring them over here. Get them out of the city. Shirley Butlers grandchildren who are in their 30s are now the third generation to run the farm. General manager Tyler Butler says children who usually only see pumpkins in grocery stores can learn how pumpkins are grown.

I didnt know pumpkins came from a vine. There are flowers on this vine. There are roots.These little girls are learning about pumpkins during their first trip to a pumpkin patch to feel the nature and the fruits. For Tristan Piazza’s mother, the Fall Festival is an annual event. My parents have always brought me. I bring my kid now. I hope he stays in the area and he can bring his kids.” Since family funds are hard to keep__afloat these days, Tyler Butler appreciates the tens of  thousands of visitors who come to the Fall Festival each year.

解题导语 本文主要介绍了Butler自助果园的一些活动项目和它对于他人的家庭所起到的独一无二的作用。

1At Butlers Orchard, visitors can experience ________.

Apicking vegetables in person

Bgrowing vegetables by themselves

Ctasting fruits off season

Dselling pumpkins online

A 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段倒数第二句Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers.可知游客可以在Butler果园里亲自采摘当令的水果、蔬菜和鲜花。故选A项。

2Why did Ken Merriam take his children to the farm?

AThey want to run it.

BThey want to grow vegetables.

CIt reminds him of his childhood.

DIt provides them with fun activities.

C 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段第二句He says Butlers Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.可知他带孩子来这里是因为这里让他想起了他的童年。故选C项。

3Which of the following best explains “keep afloat”underlined in the last paragraph?

AGuarantee.        BEarn.

CExpand.   DSpend.

A 解析:词义猜测题。根据对画线短语所在句的理解可知本句是说果园的经营者对来果园参加节日活动的游客表示感激因为这些日子果园的资金有些周转不开由此可推知画线短语和guarantee保证含义相近。故选A项。

4Whats the main idea of the passage?

AThe Fall Festival is an annual event.

BPumpkins at Butlers Orchard are organic.

CPick your own farms are increasingly popular.

DButlers Orchard strengthens the bond of the family.

D 解析:主旨大意题。通读全文可知文章主要介绍了Butler果园的一些活动项目和它在巩固他人家庭关系上发挥的作用。故D项最能概括文意。

[长难句分析] It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin.(第一段第二句)

分析:本句是一个主从复合句。主句是It has thousands of pumpkins, 后面的动名词短语作状语状语中含有where 引导的定语从句修饰先行词a pumpkin patch, where在从句中作地点状语。

译文:这个果园有成千上万的南瓜包括一个南瓜地在那里人们可以采摘他们自己的南瓜。

B

Despite the negative international headlines that have hit Huawei over the past few months, its consumer business continues to thrive. The Chinese technology giant replaced Apple as the second­largest smartphone player by global market share last year. Its firmly the biggest vendor(销售商) in China.

Chinese consumers say theyve been attracted to Huawei’s newest features, the price points and the fact that its a domestic brand.Using Huaweis mobile phones is supporting domestic brands. We hope our brands can go internationalVikey, a Guangzhou­based Huawei user, told CNBC. She added that Huawei phones are cost­effective and have good features while iPhones are “more of a trend”. One of the key features that Huawei introduced was a triple­lens camera on its P20 Pro, which was launched last year.

For the next 12 months, the iPhone lacks one of the most appealing features of current winners in the Chinese smartphone market, the triple­lens camera. The Huawei P20 Pro led the march.

Retailers(零售商) are slashing iPhone prices across China as consumers say the phones aren’t worth the cost. Apple’s latest iPhone models are facing huge discounts in China as retailers try to sell the struggling devices. That comes as the top­of­the­line Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are too­high prices for the worlds largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei. The technology giant itself  acknowledged earlier this month that unexpectedly low sales in the Chinese market would likely lead to worse­than­anticipated first quarter profits.

One of the most recent iPhone cost cuts in the country came from Suning, a large Chinese retailer, which changed the price of the 128GB version of the iPhone XR from 6999 yuan to 5799 yuana 1200 yuan discount.

Other retailers in China are also putting their iPhones on sale. Sunion, an Apple reseller, was advertising 700 yuan off for both the 128GB and 256GB versions of the iPhone XR. E­commerce site Pinduoduo, which allows third­parties to sell products, also had hefty(很大的)discounts across all of the latest iPhone models.

解题导语 中国通信科技巨头华为占领了手机市场。

5What does the underlined word “thrive” probably mean in the first paragraph?

AReduce.        BRemain.

CThreaten.   DIncrease.

D 解析:词义猜测题。结合第一段第一句中的Despite the negative international headlines that have hit Huawei over the past few months和对第一段的整体理解可推知尽管华为在国际上遭遇暂时的挫折但是其消费者业务持续增长故选D

6Which of the following is one of the Huawei’s characters?

AMore of a trend.

BCost­effective.

CToo­high prices.

DA lack of innovative features.

B 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段中的She added that Huawei phones are cost­effective and have good features while iPhones are more of a trend’.”可知华为手机有成本效益故选B

7Which of the following is a medium?

ASuning.   BSunion.

CCNBC.   DPinduoduo.

C 解析:推理判断题。根据第二段中的“‘Using Huaweis mobile phones is supporting domestic brands. We hope our brands can go internationalVikey, a Guangzhou­based Huawei user, told CNBC.可推知CNBC是一个新闻媒体。

8What can we infer from the text?

AUpdating of technology counts.

BAdvertising of the products matters.

CThe sale strategy is invisible.

DThe iPhone still leads the trend in China.

A 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段第三句That comes as the top­of­the­line Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are too­high prices for the worlds largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei.可推知技术革新是非常重要的不革新就会落后于其他品牌甚至被淘汰故选A

[长难句分析] That comes as the top­of­the­line Apple smartphones have posted poor China sales on what experts say are too­high prices for the worlds largest smartphone market and a lack of innovative features compared to local competitors like Huawei.(第四段第三句)

分析:本句是一个复合句。as引导原因状语从句;what引导宾语从句在从句中作主语。

译文:这样的结果是由业内顶端的苹果智能手机在中国这个正如专家所说的世界上最大的智能手机市场上售价太高销量低迷同时与诸如华为这样的当地竞争对手相比缺乏创新性特点而造成的。

C

In 2015, a man named Nigel Richards memorized 386000 words in the entire French Scrabble Dictionary in just nine weeks. However, he does not speak French. Richards impressive feat is a useful example to show how artificial intelligence worksreal AI. Both of Richard and AI take in massive amounts of data to achieve goals with unlimited memory and superman accuracy in a certain field.

The potential applications for AI are extremely exciting. Because AI can outperform humans at routine tasksprovided the task is in one field with a lot of datait is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so.

But not every job will be replaced by AI. In fact, four types of jobs are not at risk at all. First, there are creative jobs. AI needs to be given a goal to optimize. It cannot invent, like scientists, novelists and artists can. Second, the complex, strategic jobsexecutives, diplomats, economistsgo well beyond the AI limitation of single­field and Big Data. Then there are the as­yet­unknown jobs that will be created by AI.

Are you worried that these three types of jobs wont employ as many people as AI will replace? Not to worry, as the fourth type is much larger: jobs where emotions are needed, such as teachers, nannies and doctors. These jobs require compassion, trust and sympathywhich AI does not have. And even if AI tried to fake it, nobody would want a robot telling them they have cancer, or a robot to babysit their children.

So there will still be jobs in the age of AI. The key then must be retraining the workforce so people can do them. This must be the responsibility not just of the government, which can provide funds, but also of corporations and those who benefit most.

解题导语 本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了人工智能给人类带来的益处以及人工智能的前景。

9What is the main purpose of paragraph 1?

ATo introduce the topic.

BTo mention Nigels feat.

CTo stress the importance of good memory.

DTo suggest humans go beyond AI in memory.

A 解析:推理判断题。根据第一段内容可推知本段通过介绍Richards熟记法语词典的事迹引出了文章的主题即人工智能的益处。故正确答案为A

10Which of the following best explains “outperform” underlined in paragraph 2?

ABe superior to.   BBe equal to.

CBe similar to.   DBe related to.

A 解析:词义猜测题。根据第二段第二句中的it is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so可知在未来15年左右人工智能在技术方面可能会替代数亿个白领和蓝领的工作。由此可推知此处outperform应意为胜过……做得好。故正确答案为A

11Which of the following jobs is the most likely to be replaced?

AThe writer.   BThe shop assistant.

CThe babysitter.   DThe psychologist.

B 解析:推理判断题。根据第三、四段内容可知人工智能无法取代创造性的工作、复杂而富有策略的工作以及需要投入情感的工作。由此可推知店员这一工作职业最有可能被取代。故正确答案为B

12What does the text suggest people do about job replacement of AI?

ALimit the application of AI to a certain degree.

BGet more support from the government.

CApply for the donation from companies.

DUpgrade themselves all the time.

D 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段第二句The key then must be retraining the workforce so people can do them.可推知在人工智能时代人类所能做的就是不断提升自己来适应时代的变化。故正确答案为D

[长难句分析] Because AI can outperform humans at routine tasks—provided the task is in one field with a lot of data—it is technically capable of replacing hundreds of millions of white and blue collar jobs in the next 15 years or so.(第二段第二句)

分析:本句是一个主从复合句。Because引导原因状语从句;provided引导条件状语从句。

译文:由于人工智能在常规性工作中优于人类——假如这一工作在一领域中有许多数据——那在未来的15年左右它在技术上可以取代数亿个白领和蓝领的工作。

词句猜测题——代词指代题

(建议用时:25分钟)

A

(2019·浙江五校联考)When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible. Even my younger sister had got rid of them much earlier than me. But as I began to grow older, this changed.

All this happened on the Bike Safety Day. It is supposed to be a fun day at school when all of us kids bring our bikes to school and the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety. Sounds like fun, right? No. In fact, it caused me to panic. What was I going to say when my friends asked me about my training wheels?

With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels, I determined to let them go. This was the first big change Id ever made on my own.

I went to my parents and told them all about my dilemma. They were more than happy to help. We went outside and got my bike. Instead of running away and hiding behind, I stood in front of my bike and took great pride in my decision as my dad removed the training wheels.

I got on and steadied myself. My heart raced but my feet and hands were calm. My dad started to push before my feet even moved and suddenly I was off. The fear faded away and a relaxed mind came into its place. It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try!

My confidence soared(高涨). This was going to be the start of a brand new world for me. My accomplishment would carry me forth to new goals and wins. I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.

解题导语 本文讲述了作者小时候迟迟不敢去掉自行车的稳定轮在学校自行车安全日来临之前因为害怕同学看见她的稳定轮而最终下决心去掉它们。

1What does the school expect the students to do on Bike Safety Day?

AHave their bikes checked.

BRide outside for fun.

CAcquire bike safety skills.

DRemove the training wheels.

C 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段中的the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety可知学校想让学生在自行车安全日学会一些自行车安全技能故选C项。

2What does the underlined word “them” in paragraph 3 refer to?

AThe authors friends.

BThe author’s parents.

CThe safety problems.

DThe training wheels.

D 解析:代词指代题。根据语境及画线所在句的前半部分With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels可知作者迫于害怕别人看见自己的自行车稳定轮的压力才决心去掉它们故画线词指的就是稳定轮故选D项。

3What happened when the author finally rode without the training wheels?

AShe felt extremely embarrassed.

BEverything turned out to be easy.

CShe ended up falling down.

DHer sisters followed her example.

B 解析:推理判断题。根据倒数第二段最后一句It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try可知长时间不敢尝试的东西作者竟学得很快由此对于作者来说骑没有稳定轮的自行车后,事情变得容易了,故选B项。

4What does the author think is necessary for her to achieve a goal?

APatience.        BDetermination.

CPressure.   DConcentration.

B 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段最后一句I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.可知作者意识到如果自己下定决心做一件事的话自己就会做到。由此可推知作者认为对于她来说实现一个目标的关键在于决心故选B项。

[长难句分析] When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible.(第一段第一句)

分析:本句是一个主从复合句。I was the girl为句子的主干;句中When引导时间状语从句;who引导定语从句修饰the girl

译文:当我还是个孩子的时候我是那个把自行车的稳定轮尽可能长时间地留在我的自行车上的女孩。

B

About 1.5 billion people speak English around the world. But for more than 1.1 billion of them, English is their second languageoften with a noticeable accent.

Someones accent really reveals a lot about who they are and their identity. It will tell people what their native language is and probably where they come from says Marc Pell, a communications professor at McGill University in Montreal. And according to Pell, one reaction to it can be a bias(偏见) against that person.

Previous research that has been done elsewhere showed that people who have an accent tend to be trusted less, simply because they have an accent. But accents aren’t the only thing we listen for when we have to decide if we trust another person. Tone of voice also plays a role. Pell and his team wanted to know if people would trust a confident tone, even if it came from someone with an accent.

The researchers had Canadian English speakers listen to different versions of people saying neutral(无明显特性的) statements like “she has access to the building” while they were getting a brain scan in an MRI(磁共振成像) machine. Subjects heard someone say it with a confident tone with a Canadian English accent, an Australian accent or a French accent. Participants also heard the sentence with the three accents spoken in a doubtful or neutral tone.

The MRI scans showed that the participants had to use more brain power to decide if they could trust the statements said with the non­native accents. When the study participants heard the Australian or French accents, blood flow increased to the part of the brain that we use to process sound. They seemed to have to analyze that perhaps more carefully, or for a longer period of time to make this decision about whether they truly believed the speaker, especially when the speaker sounded doubtful. When asked, the participants reported not trusting either Australian or French accents—except when the statements were said confidently. It seems that confidence speaks for itself.

解题导语 本文是一篇说明文。虽然人们会因一个人的口音而对他产生一定的偏见但是只要他说话时很自信也同样会赢得人们的信任。

5What does the underlined word “it” in paragraph 2 refer to?

AA persons accent.

BA persons identity.

CA persons hometown.

DA persons native language.

A 解析:代词指代题。根据第二段内容可知Marc Pell认为人的口音能透露出一个人的身份和母语还有可能揭示他来自哪里人们可能会因一个人的口音而对他产生一定的偏见。由此可推知it指的是一个人的口音。故正确答案为A

6What did Pells team want to know?

AWhy some people trust others less.

BWhich parts of the brain deal with sound.

CWhat can cause a bias against non­natives.

DWhether a non­natives confident tone can gain trust.

D 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句Pell and his team wanted to know if people would trust a confident tone, even if it came from someone with an accent.可知Pell的团队想知道人们是否会信任带有口音的自信语调。故正确答案为D

7For the study participants, which of the following might demand the most brain power?

AA Canadian speaking English in a friendly way.

BA French person speaking English neutrally.

CAn American speaking English confidently.

DAn Australian speaking English doubtfully.

D 解析:推理判断题。根据第五段第一至第三句The MRI scans showed that the participants had to use more brain power to decide if they could trust the statements said with the non­native accents...They seemed to have to analyze that perhaps more carefully, or for a longer period of time to make this decision about whether they truly believed the speaker, especially when the speaker sounded doubtful.可知当面临用迟疑的语气说出的带口音的话语时参与者需要耗费更多的脑力去判断其是否可信。由此可推知在面对一位用迟疑的语气说英语的澳大利亚人时人们需要耗费更多的脑力去判断其是否可信。故正确答案为D

8Where does this text most probably come from?

AA research plan.    BA health magazine.

CAn academic journal.   DA language­learning guide.

C 解析:文章出处题。通读全文可知本文主要介绍了一项研究成果即虽然人们会因一个人的口音而对他产生一定的偏见但是只要他说话时很自信也同样会赢得人们的信任。由此可推知本文最有可能摘自一本学术杂志。故正确答案为C

[长难句分析] Previous research that has been done elsewhere showed that people who have an accent tend to be trusted less, simply because they have an accent.(第三段第一句)

分析:本句是一个复合句。第一个that引导定语从句修饰先行词research;第二个that引导宾语从句;who引导定语从句修饰先行词people; because引导原因状语从句。

译文:先前在别处做的研究表明有口音的人往往不太被信任仅仅是因为他们有口音。

C

Along with the progress of reform and opening up, the Chinese film industry has also made remarkable achievements and become in a flourishing(繁荣的) state in economic growth. It has recorded social changes in the past decades through the medium of the film. The film market of China has been much better than that of North America, becoming the largest in the world during the first season of 2019.

In the original stage of reform and opening up, old Chinese movies were rescreened and foreign movies dubbed(译制). Audiences’ enthusiasm for movies was lighted up by both these practices. In 1979, the attendance of Chinese moviegoers reached a record high of 29.3 billion. However, televisions and other entertainment activities sprang up in the late 1980s and drew many audiences away from movies when the film market faced a danger.

The employment of a socialist market economy in China in 1992 brought energy again to the film industry. With the introduction of free competition and reforms, it made an abundant recovery and experienced rapid growth. In the same period, China began to introduce overseas movies into the home market, especially those from Hollywood. Despite the argument that foreign movies occupy the space of home­made ones, Chinese movies with increasingly higher quality have gained a firm foothold in the local market with box offices setting several new records.

The development of the Internet has added new energy to the Chinese film industry. In 2015, the powerful Internet companies, one called Tencent and another Alibaba, developed their own film aim and began to adapt popular online stories for movies. With big data, more accurate marketing skills can target specific audiences to satisfy their personal preferences. Yet the development of online cinemas may pose threats to the survival of offline ones. Now the film industry is exploring more advanced film screening technologies to provide audiences with an improved movie experience.

解题导语 本文是一篇说明文。随着改革开放的发展中国电影业也取得了显著的成就成为经济增长形势下的一道繁荣景象。中国电影业通过电影媒介记录了中国过去几十年的社会变化,并且在不断地发展、创新。

9Which threat did the Chinese film market face in the late 1980s?

APopularity of televisions.

BDevelopment of online cinemas.

CA slowdown in economic growth.

DIntroduction of overseas movies.

A 解析:细节理解题。由第二段中的However, televisions and other entertainment activities sprang up in the late 1980s and drew many audiences away from movies when the film market faced a danger.可知中国电影业在20世纪80年代末期因电视和其他娱乐活动的突然兴起而面临威胁,故选项A正确。

10What does the underlined word “it” in paragraph 3 refer to?

AThe space of Chinese movies.

BThe Chinese film industry.

CThe socialist market economy.

DThe introduction of reform and opening up.

B 解析:代词指代题。由上文的when the film market faced a danger The employment of a socialist market economy in China in 1992 brought energy again to the film industry.和下文中的China began to introduce overseas movies into the home market Chinese movies with increasingly higher quality have gained a firm foothold可推知画线词指代the Chinese film industry

11What does the author indicate in the end?

AOnline cinemas will replace traditional ones sooner.

BThe film screening technology is the key to films success.

CThe Internet is a two­edged sword for the film industry.

DMovies made by Tencent and Alibaba are most successful.

C 解析:推理判断题。综合分析最后一段中的The development of the Internet has added new energy to the Chinese film industry.Yet the development of online cinemas may pose threats to the survival of offline ones.可知互联网的发展对电影产业的发展有利有弊故选C项。

12What would be the best title for the text?

AThe Ever­changing Film Market

BPopular Online Films

CAdvanced Film Technologies

DFlourishing Chinese Film Industry

D 解析:标题归纳题。由文章的首句Along with...the Chinese film industry has also made remarkable achievements and become in a flourishing(繁荣的) state in economic growth.及全文的叙述即可概括文章主旨为中国电影业的繁荣发展故选项D最适合作文章的标题。

词句猜测题——句意猜测题

(建议用时:25分钟)

A

(2019·浙江六校协作体联考)One form of social prejudice against older people is the belief that they cannot understand or use modern technology. Activities like playing computer games, going on the Net and downloading MP3s are only for the youngsters. Isnt it unfair that older people enjoying a computer game should be frowned upon by their children and grandchildren?

Nowadays older people have more control over their lives and they play a full part in society. Moreover, better health care has left more people in their sixties and seventies feeling fit and active after retirement. Mental activity, as well as physical exercise, can contribute to better health. Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.

When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didnt believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it. Now computers have been around for a few generations and retired people have gradually become more relaxed about using them for fun. Gamers over 65 prefer playing puzzle games and card games. Kate Stevens, aged 72, says, I find it very relaxing. Its not very demanding, but you still need to concentrate.

Another development that has favored grey gamers is a change in the type of videogames available on the market. Theres a greater variety of games to choose from, including more intellectual and complex strategy and simulation(模拟) games. Internet Chess and Train Simulator are among the most popular of these. Train Simulator is based on real­world activities. Players can choose from a variety of challengers, such as keeping to a strict­timetable and using helper engines during a winter storm.

Some people argue that grey gamers simply dont have the skills required for computer games, and that teenagers are better. This__couldnt__be__further__from__the__truth. Most computer games require the kind of analytical thinking that improves with practice, which means that the grey gamers may well be far better than gamers half a century younger than them. In games where speed is the main consideration, older people would be at a disadvantage because they may have slower reaction time. On the other hand, grey gamers have a preference for slower paced, mind challenging games.

解题导语 本文是一篇说明文。文章分析了当今老年人的身心状况、社会地位以及他们在电脑游戏方面的优秀表现等。

1What is the purpose of paragraph 2?

ATo show the best way to exercise the brain.

BTo stress the importance of good health.

CTo explain why grey gamers exist.

DTo teach how to play videogames.

C 解析:写作意图题。根据第二段可知当今的老年人对自己的生活有更多的支配权。更好的医疗保健让他们即便六七十岁仍然身体硬朗。不仅身心方面的锻炼有助于健康而且玩电脑游戏也有助于锻炼大脑。由此可知,对于老年人来说,玩电脑是很正常的活动。所以第二段是为了说明为什么现在有很多老龄游戏玩家的存在。故C项正确。

2What was older peoples attitude towards personal computers at first?

ADoubtful.        BConcerned.

CEnthusiastic.   DSupportive.

A 解析:观点态度题。根据第三段第一句When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didnt believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it.可知老年人起初对电脑持怀疑态度。故A项正确。

3Which method does the author use to develop paragraph 4?

AOffering analyses.

BGiving examples.

CMaking comparisons.

DProviding details.

B 解析:写作手法题。通读第四段可知第四段首句讲另一个有利于老龄玩家的发展是在市场上可找到的电子游戏的类型的改变然后通过举例介绍了Internet ChessTrain Simulator这样的游戏。所以作者采用了举例说明的方法。故B项正确。

4What does the author mean by saying This couldn’t be further from the truth. in paragraph 5?

AMind challenging games are not suitable for older people.

BChildren should improve their skills with practice.

CPlaying computer games requires analytical thinking.

DOlder people can perform well in some computer games.

D 解析:句意理解题。根据画线句前面的内容可知有些人认为老龄玩家不具备电脑游戏所需要的技巧而年轻人就好多了;再根据其后面的内容可知大多数电脑游戏都需要一种经过实践不断改进的分析能力这意味着老龄玩家可能比年轻玩家要优秀得多。由此可推知,画线句的意思是对其前内容的否定,即老年人在一些电脑游戏中表现很不错。故D项正确。

[长难句分析] Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.(第二段最后一句)

分析:Playing computer games为动名词短语作主语谓语动词用单数形式。

译文:玩电脑游戏是锻炼大脑的一种非常有效的方式。

B

It was the beginning of another school year. I had agreed to teach all struggling students in need of critical intervention(介入). I knew what lay ahead—tough work hours overlaid with guilt, consumed with essays that needed feedback and lesson plans with best practice strategies. No wonder people always acknowledge my teaching career with, Im__glad__its__you__and__not__me.

Suddenly, my mind transported me to my first few years of teaching.

Peter Potter I called from my name list, trying to control my laughter. Laughlin McLaughlin Surely these were not real names.

Emotionally disabled...keeps them separated from the other kids... the vice headmaster commanded. This was my first teaching assignment.

Surely this year could never be as discouraging as those first few. In my new classroom, I looked into the face of Jason. At eleven, his mother was killed in an accident, leaving him with physical, academic, and certainly emotional scars. I looked at  another student, Robert, standing at the door; my vice headmaster asked if I would take him, even though he was an eleventh grader in my tenth grade class.

But then there wereand arestories of successof Dustin, in Graduate School for Electrical and Computer Engineering; of Michael, now a teacher in a city school; of Willie...I thought of the thousands of students whose lives have touched mine far more than I could have ever touched theirs.

I broke from my daydream, a smile spreading across my face. Sadness, tears, challenges, fearsyes, teaching is filled with all of theseyet, it is also filled with laughter and smiles, hope, dreams, and rewards beyond measure.

Im glad its you and not me. Those words resounded in my mind once again.

解题导语 本文讲述了作者从事特殊教育的职业经历。尽管教学中充满了挑战、悲伤、泪水但是也给作者带来了欢乐、微笑、希望、梦想以及无法估量的回报。

5What might the authors job be like?

AEasy.   BBoring.

CInteresting.   DChallenging.

D 解析:推理判断题。根据第一段中的I knew what lay ahead—tough work hours overlaid with guilt, consumed with essays that needed feedback and lesson plans with best practice strategies.可知摆在作者面前的是充满内疚感的艰难工作、需要反馈的文章和关于最佳实践策略的课程计划由此可见作者的工作是具有挑战性的。故选D项。

6What does the underlined sentence imply?

AThese people would like to teach.

BThese people did not like the author.

CThese people would not want this job.

DThese people wanted to learn from the author.

C 解析:句意理解题。根据画线部分所在句No wonder people always acknowledge my teaching career with, Im glad its you and not me’.”(难怪人们总是以很高兴是你而不是我从事这项工作来评价我的教学生涯)以及前文所述的教学工作的艰巨性可知,此句话暗示说这些话的人们不愿意做这样的工作。故选C项。

7Why did the author mention Jason and Robert?

ATo stress the importance of family education.

BTo show her regrets about taking up teaching.

CTo express her dissatisfaction with the school.

DTo introduce the basic situation of her students.

D 解析:推理判断题。根据第五段提到的两个学生贾森和罗伯特的情况以及第六段的内容可知提及贾森和罗伯特的目的是介绍班级学生的基本情况故选D项。

8How did the author feel thinking of the successful students?

AShe was doing a worthwhile job.

BShe could never go back to the past.

CShe was the inspiration behind the success stories.

DShe would never make greater achievements in the future.

A 解析:推理判断题。根据第六段中的I thought of the thousands of students whose lives have touched mine far more than I could have ever touched theirs.可知作者想起了成千上万的学生他们的生活对作者的影响远远超过作者对他们生活的影响这说明作者认为自己的工作是值得的故选A项。

C

It’s not easy feeling like you’re always under the spotlight being judged for each little mistake you make. Your mind is in an endless circle playing what you said and did over and over again. You wish you had a time capsule to go back and make things right if you find mistakes. You fear what others will think about you and that they will reject and dislike you. You seek to be socially perfect.

Academically, you work long endless hours just to make those excellent marks. Although most would say its good to have high standardsthey have no idea about the internal hell you put yourself through to achieve perfection. If you come up less than your desired goal you feel as though you have failed, but youre far from failing, you just don’t see it that way. So instead you are telling yourself that youre stupid, and not smart. The pressure you place on yourself weighs you down and you wear the not good enough label each and every day.

You not only have high standards for yourself but you also have them for others. If people dont perform up to your expectations, then you think they are incompetent. This causes a lot of frustration because you cant trust anyone to get things right. So instead of being a team player you fly solo(单飞) and try to do two or three jobs at once. Your unrealistic expectations cause you to criticize and judge others and that leads to problems in other areas of your life.

The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism and its the unachievable American dream that’s damaging our emotional and mental health. We strive for perfection with our body, in our performance, and in our relationships. In a society that overstates mistakes, is it any wonder that so many young people attempt the impossible task of being perfect?

We all have flaws, fears, and make mistakes, and thats perfectly OK. Its our imperfections that make life interesting and they help us grow into a stronger and more adaptable person. We dont have to strive to achieve the impossible. We are designed to be perfectly imperfect.

解题导语 本文是一篇议论文。文章通过对完美主义者的心态和做法的描述向我们指出完美是不可能实现的。正是我们的不完美使得我们的生活变得有趣帮助我们成长。

9What might be the most suitable title of the text?

AFar from Failing

BPerfectly Imperfect

CPerfectionism Phenomenon

DUnachievable American Dream

B 解析:标题归纳题。文章通篇讨论完美主义者的心态和做法并在最后一段得出结论Its our imperfections that make life interesting and they help...We dont have to strive to achieve the impossible. We are designed to be perfectly imperfect.由此可知正是我们的不完美使得我们的生活变得有趣帮助我们成为更强大且适应性更强的人我们没必要去实现不可能的事情不完美反而造就更好的我们。故选B项。

10Which of the following is a perfectionist most likely to agree?

ANobody is perfect.

BBe generous with praise.

CThere is no best, only better.

DA contented mind is an everlasting feast.

C 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句中的you wear the not good enough label each and every day可知完美主义者总认为自己不够好。C(没有最好只有更好)符合完美主义者的心态。故选C项。

11What can we infer from the underlined sentence in paragraph 4?

AMore and more people are tolerating mistakes.

BThe society is partly to blame for perfectionism.

CMany young people find it impossible to be perfect.

DIts unusual for a society to seek perfectionism nowadays.

B 解析:句意理解题。根据第四段中的The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism and...in our relationships.可知美国梦就是追求完美这个无法实现的梦想正在破坏着我们的情感和心理健康。美国梦代表的是美国社会而这个夸大错误、追求完美的社会对年轻人追求完美的行为产生了一定影响所以这个社会应为完美主义负部分责任。故选B项。

12What does the author think of imperfection?

AIts part of our life.

BIts unbearable.

CIt deserves to be overcome.

DIt does harm to our mental health.

A 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段可知我们都有缺点都会犯错误,正是这些不完美使得我们的生活变得有趣,帮助我们成为更强大且适应性更强的人,所以它是我们生活的一部分。故选A项。

 

 

 

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