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初中英语各种时态讲义

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初中英语时态

一、一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。时间状语:every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

 I leave home for school at 7 every morning.    

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

 The earth moves around the sun.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。例如:   Columbus proved that the earth is round.

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

 Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较Now I put the sugar in the cup.          I am doing my homework now.

     第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况。

知识扩展:一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

    The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:

    Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

3)在时间或条件句中。

    When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

    I hope they have a nice time next week.

二、一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

 I saw Tom in the street yesterday.

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

 When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

3)用过去时表示现在,表示语气委婉礼貌。

 1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如:

    Did you want anything else?

    I wondered if you could help me.

 2)情态动词could, would,例如:

 Could you lend me your bike?

4)用在条件句中表示与现在或将来事实不符的虚拟语气。

    If he were here now, we could turn to him for help.

注意比较下列句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth ……时间了;该……,例如:

  It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time sb. did sth. “时间已迟了;早该……,例如:

 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示宁愿某人做某事,例如:

    I'd rather you came tomorrow.

一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义:她现在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.  (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. ( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

三、一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事或打算做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month.

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds; there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

be going to / will的用法之比较:

    用于条件句时,be going to表将来,will表意愿。例如:

If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

be tobe going to 的用法之比较:

 be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。而be going to 则表示主观的打算或计划。例如:

 I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排)

 I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon.  (主观安排) 

四、现在进行时

 1. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。例如:

      We are waiting for you.

 2. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

      Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

      She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

 3. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

      The leaves are turning red.

      It's getting warmer and warmer.

 4. always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

  You are always changing your mind.

知识扩展:不用进行时的动词 

1) 事实状态的动词。如:have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue

 I have two brothers.

 This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理状态的动词。如:know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate

  I need your help.

  He loves her very much.

3) 瞬间动词。如:accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.

    I accept your advice.

4) 系动词。如:seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste,

    You seem a little tired.

五、过去进行时

1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语有:this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

    例句:  My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

 It was raining when they left the station.

典型例题

1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. 

  A. made           B. is making     C. was making   D. makes

答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

 A. read; was falling   B. was reading; fell 

 C. was reading; was falling  D. read; fell

答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为"在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick

六、现在完成时

1.现在完成时的用法:

1)现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词justalready, before, yet, never, ever等状语连用。例如:

    I have never heard of that before.

    She has already finished the work.

  有时没有时间状语;多是一般疑问句。

2)现在完成时表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去的动作或状态。可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括现在在内)的一段时间的状语连用。如:forsince,以及so far, now, today, this week(month, year) 等。

    I haven’t seen her these days.       She has learnt English for 3 years.

 They have lived here since 1990.   What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years?

注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如come, go, die, marry, buy等的完成时不能与for, since等表示一段时间的短语连用。

3)现在完成时还可以用在时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作,例如:

    I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework.

   4have been (to)have gone (to)的区别:

have / has been (to) 表示曾经去过某地,说话时此人很可能不在那里,已经回来。侧重指经历。

have / has gone (to) 表示某人已经去了某地,说话时此人在那里,或可能在路上,反正不在这里。

试比较:

    He has been to Beijing. 他曾去过北京。

   (人已回来,可能在这儿)

    He has gone to Beijing. 他已经去了北京。

   (人已走,不在这儿)。

一般过去时与现在完成时之比较

    1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

    2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

一般过去时的时间状语有:yesterday, last week…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语。

共同的时间状语有:this morning, tonight, this April, now, oncebefore, already, recentlylately等。 

现在完成时的时间状语有:for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always, 等不确定的时间状语。

请大家认真分析比较下列各例句:

    I saw this film yesterday.  (强调看的动作发生过了。)

    I have seen this film.     (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。) 

    She has returned from Paris. (她已从巴黎回来了。)

    She returned yesterday.      (她是昨天回来了。)

    He has been in the League for three years.  (在团内的状态可延续)

    He joined the League three years ago.    ( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

注意:句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。例如:

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.    

延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别:

  延续动词表示经验、经历;瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。

  He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。(表结果)

  I've known him since then.   我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until 从句的差异:

  延续动词用于肯定句,表示……直到……” ;瞬间动词用于否定句,表示……,才……”

  He didn't come back until ten o'clock.  他到10 点才回来。

  He slept until ten o'clock.      他一直睡到10点。

七、过去完成时的用法

1、过去完成时的用法:

1)过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或者某一动作之前完成的动作或状态;句中常用by, before, until, when等词引导的时间状语。

    By the end of last year we had built five new houses.

    I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university.

2)过去完成时的动词还可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或者状态持续到过去某个时间或者持续下去。

    Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours. 

3)在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

     She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

4)在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

     When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

5)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本,未能…"

     We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

6)过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as

 He said that he had learned some English before.

用一般过去时代替完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用thenandbut 等连词时,多用一般过去时。

 When she saw the mouseshe screamed.

 My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。

 When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

 Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

八、过去将来时

(一)、基本概念:

过去将来时表示从过去的某一时间看将要发生的动作或存在的状态。它是一个相对的时态,即立足于过去某时,从过去的某一时间看即将发生的事情就要用这一时态。

  He said his mother would buy a bike for him

(二)、基本形式:  wouldshould+动词原形(其中would 用于各种人称,should 常用于第一人称)。

例如:They were sure they would win the final victory

他们坚信会赢得最后胜利。

He didn't expect that we shouldwouldall be there

他没想到我们都在那里。

上述两个例句中的宾语从句谓语would win shouldwouldbe 分别与其主句谓语were sure didn't expect 相对应。

(三)、过去将来时的一些其它表达形式:

1wasweregoing to+动词原形

  He said he was going to try

  他说他准备试试。

2waswereto+动词原形

  They said the railway was to be opened to traffic on May Day

  他们说这条铁路将在五一节通车。

3waswere about+动词原形

  We were about to go out when it began to rain

  我们正要出去天(突然)下起雨来。

4.过去进行时(一般多为动作概念较强的动词,如gocomeleavestartopenbegin 等)也可用于表示将来。

  I didn't know when they were coming again

  我不知道他们什么时候再来。

(四)、用法注意点:

1.在时间和条件状语从句中,常用一般过去时来表示过去将来时。例如:

  He said he would come to see you when he had time

  他说他有时间就来看望你。

2“would+动词原形可表示过去习惯性的动作。此时,不管什么人称,都可用would

  When he was a child he would get up early

  他年幼时,总是很早起床。

 

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