中考英语语法一轮复习——时态讲解

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中考英语语法一轮复习——时态讲解

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初中英语八种时态归纳复习

一、一般现在时:

概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

时间状语:always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…),

once a week, on Sundays, etc.

基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词

否定形式:①am/is/are+not;

②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①把be动词放于句首;

②用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。

注:当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词需加-s-es

规则

动词原形

第三人称单数形式

一般在词尾加-s

play

leave

swim

plays

leaves

swims

以字母s,x,ch,sh,o结尾的词加-es,如果动词原形词尾已有e,则只加-s

pass

fix

teach

wish

do

passes

fixes

teaches

wishes

does

以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先变yi, 再加-es

study

carry

fly

studies

carries

flies

o结尾的词,加es

go

do

goes

does

注意:动词have的第三人称单数是has.

写出下列动词的单数第三人称形式。

1. cook _______2.watch________3.build_________4.have________5.wash________

6. enjoy ______7. go _________8 receive ______9 cry______10. close ________

11. drive _______ 12. choose ______13. play ________14. reach ________

一般现在时的用法:

1)表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的副词连用。常用的频度副词有:alwaysoftenusuallyseldomnever。频度副词在句中通常放在行为动词之前,系动词、助动词之后。

例如: He often goes swimming in summer.他夏天经常游泳。

Iusually leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

2)表示现在的状态。

例如:My father is at work.He is very busy. 我父亲在工作,他很忙。

      The boy is twelve. 这男孩十二岁。

3)表示主语具备的性格、特征和能力等。

例如:All my family love football .我全家人都喜欢足球。
My sister is always ready to help others. 我妹妹总是乐于助人。

Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

4)表示客观真理,客观存在,自然现象。

例如:The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

    Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

5)在复合句中,当主句是一般将来时,时间或条件状语从句的谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作。

例如:I'll tell him the news when he comes back. 他回来时,我将告诉他这个消息。

If you take the job , they will talk with you in greater details.

如果你接受这份工作,他们将和你谈谈细节。

巩固练习:

1Lucy likes going skating with her friends. (改写成否定句)

________________________________________________________

2Aunt Li’s son has ten toy bears. (对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3His watch costs 300 yuan. (变成一般疑问句并否定回答)

________________________________________________________

4I like being a nurse for the old. (变成一般疑问句)

________________________________________________________

5、张叔叔每天乘坐地铁上班。

________________________________________________________

6、我们每周日常花三小时在图书馆看书。

________________________________________________________

7、我爷爷常常晚饭后出去散步。

________________________________________________________

二、一般过去时:

概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词

否定形式:①was/were+not;

②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①waswere放于句首;

②用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

规则动词的过去式的变化规律

规则

动词原形

第三人称单数形式

一般在词尾加-ed

pull

cook

work

pulled

cooked

worked

以不发音e结尾的动词,在词尾加-d(注意:有些以不发音e结尾的单词是不规律的变化。eg: take-took; have-had; make-made)

taste

like

dance

tasted

liked

danced

以辅音字母加y结尾的词,先变yi, 再加-ed(注意:如果是元音字母+y结尾直接-edenjoy-enjoyed;

play-played)

study

carry

cry

studied

carried

cried

以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节的动词,双写最后一个辅音字母再加-ed

plan

stop

fit

planned

stopped

fitted

不规则动词(见课本不规则动词表)

一般过去时的用法:

1)表示过去某个时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。常和表示过去的时间状语yesterday, last week, an hour ago,just now, the other day, in 1982等连用。在一般过去式中,要表达过多少时间之后,一般用after。几年后。

例如:Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

     After a few years,she started to play the piano.几年后,她开始弹钢琴。

2)表示在过去,经常或反复发生的动作。常与often,always等表示频度的副词连用。

例如:When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。 

3)一般过去式也可与today,this week,this month,this year等表现在的时间壮语连用,但这些时间壮语须指过去的时间,决不包含现在”“此时此刻的意思。

例如:Did you see him today?今天你看见他了吗?

巩固练习:

1. Yesterday I went swimming.(改写成否定句。)

________________________________________________________

2. He was born in Shanghai.(对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3我昨天买了一辆新自行车。

________________________________________________________

4、我前天读了一本书。

________________________________________________________

三、现在进行时:

概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

时间状语:now, at this time, these days, look, listen, Its o clock etc.

基本结构:am/is/are+doing

否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing.

一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

注:动词V-ing的构成形式

规则

原形

-ing形式

一般在动词原形末尾加-ing

listen

spend

stay

listening

spending

staying

以不发音字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e,再加-ing

have

prepare

close

having

preparing

closing

以重读闭音节结尾的动词,如果末尾只有一个辅音字母,应先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing

sit

begin

run

put

sitting

beginning

running

putting

ie为重读音节结尾的动词,先去掉e,i改为y,再加-ing

lie

die

lying

dying

er结尾的动词,如是重读音节结尾,先双写r,再加-ing;如不是重读音节结尾,就直接加-ing

prefer

water

preferring

watering

写出下列动词的现在分词形式。

1win            2relax             3jump            4make          

5have           6talk              7tie              8cheer          

9enjoy          10cry              11come           12fit          

现在进行时的用法:

1、表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生或进行的动作。常与now,right now,at this moment等时间壮语连用。

例如:We are waiting for you now. 我们正在等你。

2  表示现阶段(说话前后一段时间内),一直在进行的活动。说话时动作未必正在进行。

例如:Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

     He is thinking about this problem.这些天来他一直在考虑这个问题。

3  表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,常与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

例如:You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

4  表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

例如:The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

    It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

 5、表示按计划或安排要发生的动作。

表移动的终止性动词(come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等)用于现在进行时,表示即将要发生动作。

例如:I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

      The train is arriving soon. 火车要到了。

一些持续性动词用于进行时,表将来,表示说话者对对方将要做的事情的一种关心。

例如:Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

注意:

巩固练习:

1Bruce often writes letters in English. (用now改写句子)

________________________________________________________

2They are surfing. (对划线部分提问)

________________________________________________________

3、瞧,那些孩子们玩的真高兴!

________________________________________________________

4、这些天工人们一直在尽力修补那些坏了的帐篷。

________________________________________________________

四、过去进行时:

概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

基本结构:was/were+doing

否定形式:was/were + not + doing.

一般疑问句:把waswere放于句首。

过去进行时的用法:

1、表示在过去某时刻正在进行或发生的动作,通常与表过去的时间壮语连用。

例如:At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.
昨天这个时候,我正在收拾东西去露营。

2、表移动的动词,如come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等词的过去进行时,可以表示过去将要发生的动作。

例如:She told me that she was going to Hainan for her holiday. 她告诉我她将去海南度假。

3、在含有时间壮语从句的复合句中,表示一个过去的动作发生时或发生之后,另一个动作正在进行。

例如:It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。

    When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。

4、在叙述或描写过去的事情时,过去进行时经常与其它过去时态,特别时是一般过去时连用。但是过去进行时往往是表示背景。

例如:One night, he was typing in his study . Suddenly, a man broke into his house and cut off the electricity … .

一天晚上,他正在书房里打字。突然,一个人闯进屋来,切断了电源……

巩固练习:

1Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. 

A. made     B. is making     C. was making      D. makes

2As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

A. readwas falling          B. was readingfell 

C. was readingwas falling    D. readfell

五、现在完成时:

概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years,, so far, etc.

基本结构:have/has + done

否定形式:have/has + not +done.

一般疑问句:havehas

现在完成时的用法:

1、表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常与already, yet, ever, never, justbefore 等词连用。

例如:Have you ever cooked at home? 你吃晚饭了吗?
You have already grown much taller.你已经长高了许多。

2、表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,并可能还要延续。往往和表示一段时间的时间壮语连用,常用的有:for+一段时间;since+过去时间点或从句。(Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度),提问用How long.

例如:It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。
      They have learned English for eight years .他们已学了八年的英语了。
3、现在完成时需注意的问题:

A. 表示短暂性的动词不能与表示一段时间的壮语连用。

短暂性动词变延续性的形式

come ---- be here          go --- be away / off     

borrow --- keep           buy --- have

start / begin --- be on       leave --- be away       

die --- be dead            join---be in

open---be open           close---be closed

例如:He has joined the army for five years. (错误)
He has been in the army for five years.(正确)

注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。

(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.     

B. 不能和明确的过去时间壮语连用,如yesterday,last week,in 1998,two days ago等。

C. have/has been to have/has gone to 的区别:

  have/has been to  去过 (在本地)                       

  have/has gone to  去了 (不在本地)                     

D. 比较一般过去时与现在完成时

一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,强调动作,不和现在发生联系,常与具体的过去时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,;现在完成时表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调的是现在的情况,不能与表过去的时间壮语连用。

I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

He has been a League member for three years. (强调他是团员)

巩固练习: 

1---Do you know our town at all? 

 ---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

2---Have you ____ been to our town before?

 ---No, it's the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come B. even, have come  C. ever, come D. ever, have come

3Do you know ________?
 A. how long has he lived here      B. how long he has lived here
 C. he has lived here how long      D. he has lived how long here

六、过去完成时:

概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即过去的过去

时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

基本结构:had + done.

否定形式:had + not + done.

一般疑问句:had放于句首。

过去完成时的用法:

1、表示在过去某一时间或动作以前已完成的行为或存在的状态。即发生的时间是过去的过去。常与“by/before+过去时间构成的短语连用。

例如:The train had already left before we arrived. 在我到达之前,火车已经走了。

    He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。

2、表示在过去某一时间点之前已经持续了一段时间的动作或状态,常与for/since引导的表示过去的时间壮语连用。

例如:I had lived in America for two years before I came here .

我来这儿之前在美国住过两年。

3、表示过去未曾实现的计划、愿望等。这种用法中常用的动词为hope, want,plan,wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等。

例如:We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

      I had thought that all knew about it.我以为他们都知道这件事呢。
巩固练习:

1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. 

A. had met    B. have met    C. met       D. meet

2. ---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

 ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been    B. had been   C. was      D. will be      

3The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. 

A. had written, left      B. were writing, has left 

C. had written, had left   D. were writing, had left

4My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. 

A. has lost, don't find    B. is missing, don't find 

C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found. 

七、一般将来时:

概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

基本结构:①am/is/are/going to + do;②will/shall + do.

否定形式:①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。

一般将来时的用法:

1、表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与tomorrow, next year等连用。例如:I'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.

2、表示将来经常或反复发生的动作。

例如:I’ll come and see you every Saturday next year.明年我将每个星期六来看你。

3、表示说话人对于将来的看法、假设和推测,通常用be afraid,be/feel sure,hope,know,  think等后面的从句或与副词perhaps,possibly,maybe等连用。

例如:I think she’ll go back home for supper. 我想她会回家吃饭。

      Maybe she’ll go to the gym.也许她会去体育馆。

注:be going to +不定式,表示将来。

1、表示主语进行某一行动的打算意图。这种打算常经过预先考虑并含有自己做好某些准备的意思。即计划,安排要发生的事。

例如:What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作什么呢?

The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。

2、表示说话人确信如此或有某种迹象表明某事即将发生。

例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云,快要下雨了。

3、注意:be going to will之间的区别。

A. 两者都用于预测时,be going to意指有迹象表明某件事将要发生,属客观的推测;will则意指说话人认为/相信某件事将要发生,属主观的推测。

B. 两者在时间的发生上,be going to通常表示马上要发生或相当快就要发生的事情;而will不指明任何具体时间,可以指遥远的未来。

例如:He is gong in to be better. 他的病就要好起来了。

      He will be better. 他的病会好起来了。

C. 两者都表示意图时,be going to含有预先计划、准备的意思;will则指未经过预先思考或计划,是临时的一种决定。

D. 在条件壮语从句中,be going to表将来,will表意愿。

例如:If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.如果你将要去旅行,最好尽快做好准备。

    Miss Gao will tell you the answer if you ask her. 如果你去问高老师,她会告诉你答案。

八、过去将来时:

概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do.

否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;would/should + not + do.

一般疑问句:①waswere放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。

过去将来时的用法:

1、表示从过去某时看将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常用于主句是一般过去时的宾语从句中。

例如:He said that he would finish his work before 9 o’clock.

      他说他会在九点之前完成工作。

2  表示过去的某种习惯,只要would

例如:Whenever he has been in trouble,we would give him a hand.

     每当他遇到困难时,我们总会伸出援助之手。

巩固练习:

1He said that he_________________ (come)back tonight.

2I thought it_____________rainsoon.

. 几种常見时态的相互轉换

英语中的几种时态在一定情况下可以互相轉换,以下是几种常見的轉换形式:

一、一般过去时与现在完成时的轉换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语連用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用別的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于一段时间+ ago”的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改成与之相对應的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间連用;③瞬间动词用于“It is + 一段时间+ since + 一般过去时的句型中,表示自从……以来有……时间的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been;④瞬间动词用于“Some time has passed since + 一般过去时的句型中。请看:

A. He joined the League two years ago.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

二、一般现在时与现在进行时的轉换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示处于某种状态,如at work(在工作), at school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态轉换。请看:

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

三、现在进行时与一般将来时的轉换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语連用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum! 意为我就来,妈妈!请看:

The train is leaving soon.

The train will leave soon.

四、“be going to+动词原形“will(shall)+动词原形结构的轉换

“be going to+动词原形、表示打算、计划要做的事;将来时“will(shall)+动词原形结构在书面语中,当主语为第一人称时,常用助动词shall。在口语中,所有人称都可以用will。请看:

We are going to visit the Great Wall next Sunday.

We shall visit the Great Wall next Sunday

被动语态句式

宾语主格+be done by +主语宾格。

补全各时态下被动语态一览表

即:be 各种时态的变化

核心结构

Be(动词原形)

done

一般现在时

Is/am/are

done

一般过去时

Was/were

done

一般将来时

Will be

done

过去进行时

was/were being

done

现在进行时

is/am/are being

done

过去完成时

Had been

done

现在完成时

Have/has been

done

 

根据汉语及英语提示翻译句子,并把翻译完的句子变成一般疑问句

1 他们仍受孔子思想影响。(today/still

They are still influenced by Confucius’ thoughts today. 

2 一千多年前,纸由蔡伦发明。(more than a thousand years ago

Paper was invented by Cailun more than a thousand years ago.

3 我们的运动会将于周六举行

Our sports meeting will be held on Saturday.

4 一所新学校正在被建造。(now

A new school is being built.

5 教室已经被打扫过了。(already

The classroom has already been cleaned.

6 作业必须及时完成。(in time

The homework must be finished in time.

 

 

 

 

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