高考英语时态复习讲解

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高考英语时态复习讲解

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时态与语态

考点一  一般现在时

1.一般用法

(1)表示现在经常性、习惯性的动作或存在的状态。(often, usually, always, every day, on weekends

My mother works in a bank.            She is a senior student.

(2)表示客观真理、客观存在、科学事实等。(不受时态限制)s

The earth moves around the sun. The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun.

考例: Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which ___ the Pacific, and we met no storms.  05辽宁卷)

Awas called   Bis called    Chad been called   Dhas been called

(3)在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中,代替一般将来时。

I will tell him the news as soon as I see him.

考例:The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ____ to eat more fruit and vegetables.

Persuade   B. will persuade   C. be persuade   D. are persuaded

翻译If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。

(4)表示按时间表、规定、计划或安排将要发生的动作。常用于be, go, come, start, leave, arrive, begin, open, close等表示起始的短暂性动词。句子中常有表示将来的时间状语。

The plane leaves at three sharp.飞机三点整起飞。

The new teachers arrive tomorrow.新老师们明天到。

(5) 图片、电影及舞台指导说明、故事重述、报刊标题、引用快报或名人名言重用一般现在是表示或说明过去的事。

Hundred of people die in the earthquake.

Two weeks later, the women arrives at the farmers house.

(6)表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时seehearsmelltastefeelnoticeagreebelievelikehatewantthinkbelong seem等。如:

I know what you mean.           Smith owns a car and a house.

All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School.

考点二 一般过去时

(1)表示在确定的过去时间里发生的动作或存在的状态(last year,yesterday,just now, at that time, in the past, then, in 2002, a few days ago)

Where did you go just now?  你刚才去哪里了?

(2)表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。

I went to the cinema once a week when I was at school.我上学时每周去看一场电影。

(3)在时间,条件方式,让步状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

They said they would let me know as soon as they got there.他们说只要他们一到那儿就会马上让我知道的。

(4)表示没有确定的过去时间但实际已发生的动作。

   常见的有I didn't know...I forgot...等,表示事先不知道或者不记得,但现在已知道或者记得的事情。

I didn't know you were so busy.没想到你这么忙。

I didn't expect to meet you here.  我没想到在这儿碰到你。

(5)since后的从句常用一般过去式

  You havent changed much since we last met. 自从上次见面以来,你变化不大。

(6) 追述过去的人或事

  The book was written by Mr Liang Shuqiu.

  Lei Feng set a good example to the people throughout the world.

考点三 一般将来时

1.表示客观上将势必发生的事情或临时做出的打算。

We shall have a lot of rain next month.下个月会有很多雨。

Where is the dictionary?字典在哪儿?

I will go and get it for you.我去给你拿。

2.其他表达法

(1)be going to+动词原形  表示主观计划、打算做某事或根据某种迹象表明某事即将发生。

We are not going to stay there long.  我们不准备在那里久住。

Look at the dark clouds. It is going to rain.看那乌云,要下雨了。

(2)be to do结构  表示计划、约定或按职责、义务必须去做的事或即将发生的动作或注定会发生的事。

You are to hand in the composition on Monday.周一你要交上作文。

All the questions are to be answered at once.所有的问题都必须立即回答。

(3)be about to do结构  表示不久或即将要发生的动作,一般不与时间状语连用。

Sit down, everyone. The film is about to start.大家坐好,电影马上就要开始了。

(4)Be doing有这种用法的主要是一些短暂性动词,如go, come, leave, start, begin, run, stay,take

   She is leaving early this morning. 她明天一早就出发。

(5)一般现在时表一般将来

    表示按时间表、规定、计划或安排将要发生的动作。常用于be, go, come, start, leave, arrive, begin, open, close等表示起始的短暂性动词。句子中常有表示将来的时间状语。

用于时间、条件、方式及让步状语从句中表一般将来

考点四 现在进行时

1        表示此时此刻正在发生的动作或状态 或 现阶段正在发生的动作或状态,虽然此时此刻动作不一定正在进行 或 反复发生或持续存在的动作与状态。

We are waiting for you now.  我们现在正在等你。

I am helping my dad on the farm this summer vacation.这个暑假我再农场帮爸爸干活。

You are always changing your mind.  你总是不停地改变主意。

The boy is jumping with great joy at the sight of his mother.一看到妈妈,小男孩就高兴地不停地跳。

 (2)表示动作的未完性、暂时性

--- Have you moved into the new house? --- Not yet. The rooms are being painted.(未完性)

  I dont really work here; I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives.(暂时性)

(3)表示计划、安排要做的事情 (见一般将来时2. (4)Be doing

(4) 表达特定的感情色彩。与副词always, usually, continually, constantly, forever等连用,往往含有赞赏、厌恶、遗憾等情绪。

   He is always thinking of others first. 她总是先想到他人。

   You are always watching TV. Why not do something more active?

 特别提示:表示心理活动、拥有、行为结果、表象、感官的动词,如understand, realize, believe, have, own, possess, belong to, seem, look, sound, accept, admit, receive等不能用于进行时态。

考点五 过去进行时

(1)表示过去某一时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。)

I was reading a novel when you called.你打电话时我正在读小说。

She was studying English all weekend.整个周末她都在学英语。

(2)短暂性动词come, go, start, begin, leave, arrive, get, become等的过去进行时表示从过去某一时刻看将要发生的动作。

She asked him whether he was coming back for lunch.她问他晚饭是否准备回来吃。

(3)过去进行时也可表示现在,使语气更加委婉、客气。

I was wondering if you could give me a lift.不知你能否让我搭一下车。

考点六 将来进行时

表示将来某个时间点或时间段正在进行的动作或存在的状态。

What will you be doing at this time on Saturday?周六的这个时间你将会干什么?

Andy will be teaching English in Jinan at this time of next month.

下个月的这个时候,安迪就将在济南教英语了。

考点七 现在完成时

(1)强调过去的行为对现在的影响。

表示动作发生在过去,但其结果影响到现在,可以和一些表示不确定的时间状语just, already, yet, ever, recently等连用。

We've done a lot of work on it, but we haven't finished yet.

我们在上面花了不少功夫,但是现在还没有完成。

(2) 表示过去的某个动作一直持续到现在。

表示动作或状态从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在,还可能持续下去,常与forsince等表示一段时间的状语连用。

I've been very sad for the past few months.在过去的几个月里,我一直很伤心。

(3)表示经历过的事情

表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作,现在成为一种经历,常带有twice, ever, never, three times等时间状语。

I've never seen her as angry as that, so I kept quiet.

我从来没有看到过她那样生气,所以我保持沉默。

(4)This / It is the first /second time + that 从句That 从句谓语动词用现在完成时。

This is the first time I have seen such a grand palace.

(5)在时间或条件等状语从句中,代替将来完成时。

I will give my opinion when I have read the book through.

读完这本书后我就告诉你我的意见。

I will go home as soon as I have had my bicycle mended.我把自行车修好后就回家。

(6) 瞬间动词又叫非延续性东侧、终止动词。瞬间动词一般不用完成时态,也不可以接表示一段时间的状语,若要接表示一段时间的状语,需作一些相应的变换。瞬间动词的 否定式可用完成时,否定式也可以接表示一段时间的状语。

 正误:He has come to Beijing since last year.      He has lived in Beijing since last year.

He has joined the army for 3 years.         He has served in the army for 3 years.

 He joined the army 3 years ago.            He has been a soldier for 3 years.

It is 3 years since he joined the army.        He has joined the army.

常见的瞬间动词有:come, go, get to/reach/arrive at, leave, buy, sell, open, close, get up, join/ take part in, begin/ start, return/give, borrow/lend, become/turn, bring/ take, die, finish/end, receive/hear from, marry, break, lose, jump

特别提示:现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,不强调与现在的关系或对现在的影响;

现在完成时则表示发生在过去的动作对现在的影响或持续到现在。

I lost my new mobile phone yesterday.昨天我把新手机丢了。

I have lost my new mobile phone.我把新手机丢了。

考点八 过去完成时

(1)表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在过去的过去,常与by(by then, by that time, by the end of, by the time+句子), before, when, until,等引导的时间状语连用,只有和过去某时间或某动作相比较时才能用到该时态。

Most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

当他到达晚会现场时,大多数客人已经离开了。

   Until then he had known nothing about it yet. 到那时为止,他对此一无所知。

(2)过去完成时还用于状语从句的两个常用句型:hardly...when(…………)no sooner...than(…………)

Hardly had we left the dormitory the next morning when we realized we left our map in the room.

第二天早晨我们刚离开宿舍,就想起把地图忘在房间里了。

(3) This / It was the first /second time + that 从句That 从句谓语动词用过去完成时。

(4)It was/had been +一段时间+ since 从句。Since 从句谓语动词用过去完成时。

  It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. 我们10年没这么高兴了。

(5)用在表示愿望、打算一类的动词如:hope, think, expect, intend, mean, suppose, want等,其过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的愿望或打算

I had intended to speak, but time did not permit.我本想发言,但时间不允许。

They had wanted to help but could not get here in time.

他们本来是要来帮忙的,但未能及时赶到。

考点九 现在完成进行时

(1)表示过去某一时刻发生的动作一直持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下去。

It has been raining since last night.雨从昨晚一直下到现在。

She has been waiting for you since nine o'clock.她从九点就一直在等你了。

(2)表示重复的动作

You have been saying you can succeed for five years.五年来你一直在说你能成功。

(3) 表示感情色彩

Too much has been happening today.今天真是一个多事的日子。

I have been wanting to meet you for a long time. 和你见面是我盼望已久的事情。

特别提示:现在完成进行时和现在完成时的区别:

现在完成进行时强调动作从过去持续到现在,无间断,强调动作持续的过程;

现在完成时所表示的动作则是终止性的,强调对现在造成的影响。

I have been washing my clothes.我一直在洗衣服。I have washed my clothes.我已经洗完衣服了。

考点十 将来完成时

表示到将来某一时间完成的动作。常用的时间状语为by+将来某一时间

They will have graduated from senior high school by June next year.明年六月他们就高中毕业了。

By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.

你到家的时候我就已经把房子彻底打扫一遍了。

考点十一 过去将来时

表示从过去某一时间看将要发生的动作或过去打算做某事。

She said her mother would come to see her.她说她母亲会来看她。

I was going to call you when you came in.你进来的时候我正要给你打电话。

 

 

1. --- Oh, dear. I forgot the air tickets.

  --- You ______ something.

A. have left B. are always leaving C. are leaving D. always left

2. --- I ______ so busily recently that I ______ no time to help you with your math.

  --- That’s OK. I can manage it by myself.

A. have been working; haveB. have worked; hadC. am working; will haveD. had been working; had had

3. Remember to send me a photo of us next time you ______ to me.

A. are writing B. will writeC. has written D. write

4. He ______ at the meeting, but his heart attack prevented him.

A. will speak B. is going to speakC. had to speak D. was going to speak

5. --- I beg your pardon, but I didn’t quite catch you.

    --- Oh, I ______ myself.

A. am talking to B. talked aboutC. have talked to D. was talking to

6. I ______ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the New Year.

A. will play B. have playedC. played D. play

7. I first met Tom 10 years ago. He ______ in a radio factory at that time.

A. had worked B. has workedC. was working D. has been working

8. --- What ______ when I phoned you?

  --- I ______ my work, and I wanted to go out.

A. have you done; finishedB. were you doing; have finished

C. did you do; had just finishedD. were you doing; had just finished

9. --- Have you finished the report?

  --- No. I ______ it all this week.

A. will do B. had doneC. have done D. have been doing

10. I can guess you were in a hurry. You ______ your sweater inside out.

A. had worn B. woreC. were wearing D. are wearing

11. --- We ______ that you would fix the TV set this week.

  --- I’m sorry. I ______ to fix it this week, but I’ve been too busy.

A. had expected; had intendedB. are expecting; had intended

C. expect; intendD. expected; intend

12. --- Why? Tom, your shirt is so dirty!

  --- Mum, I ______ my storeroom downstairs.

  A. cleaned B. have cleaned

  C. was cleaning D. have been cleaning

13. They won’t buy new clothes because they ______ money to buy a new house.

  A. save B. are saving

  C. have saved D. were saving

14. The traffic in our city is already good and it ______ even better.

   A. gets B. got C. has got D. is getting

15. --- I will come to attend your lecture at 10:00 tomorrow.

  --- I’m sorry, by then my lecture will have ended and I ______ my guests in my office.

  A. is being met B. will meet

  C. will be meeting D. will have met

16. --- Alice came back home the day before yesterday.

  --- Really? Where ______?

  A. has she been B. had she been

  C. has she gone D. had she gone

17. I know Mr. Brown; we ______ to each other at an international conference.

  A. are introduced B. are been introduced

  C. were introduced D. had been introduced

18. --- Where do you think ______ he ______ the computer?

  --- Sorry. I have no idea.

  A. has; bought B. 不填; bought

  C. did; buy D. 不填; buys

19. Don’t bother to look for my dictionary --- it ______ some day.

  A. turns up B. has turned up

   C. will turn up D. is going to turn up

20. --- What do you think of this kind of TV set, which ______ in Shanghai?

  --- Well, I don’t care about such things.

  A. was made B. is made

  C. has been made D. had been made

21. --- Did he notice you enter the room?

  --- I don’t think so. He ______ to the radio with his eyes shut.

  A. listened B. was listening

  C. has listened D. had listened

22. The plane ______ at 7:00 pm, so I have to be at the airport by 6:40 at the latest.

  A. has left B. would leave

  C. will have left D. leaves

23. The train ___ at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about     nine o’clock tonight.

  A. went B. is going C. goes D. will be going

24. I used to drink a lot of tea but these days I ______ coffee.

  A. prefer B. preferred

  C. had preferred D. am preferring

25. The vegetables didn’t taste very good. They ______ too long.

  A. had been cooked B. were cooked

  C. have cooked D. cooked

26. --- Remember the first time we met, Jim?

  --- Of course I do. You ______ in the library.

  A. were reading B. had read

  C. have read D. read

27. I want to buy that kind of cloth because I ______ the cloth ______ well.

  A. have told; washes

  B. have been told; washes

  C. was told; washed

  D. have been told; is washed

28. --- Is Tom still smoking?

  --- No. By next Saturday he ______ for a whole month without smoking a single cigarette.

  A. will be B. will have gone

  C. will have been D. has been going

29. --- ______ Betty this morning?

  --- Not yet, but she is sure to be here before noon.

  A. Have you seen B. Will you see

  C. Do you see D. Did you see?

30. Jim talked for about half an hour yesterday. Never ______ him talk so much.

  A. I heard B. did I hear

  C. I had heard D. had I heard

31. --- Look at the black clouds. It ______ soon.

  --- Sure. If only we ______ out.

  A. is raining; didn’t come

  B. is to rain; won’t start

  C. will rain; haven’t started

  D. is going to rain; hadn’t come

32. He ___ articles for our wall-newspaper these three years, and he ____ about forty articles.

  A. has been writing; has written

  B. has been writing; wrote

  C. is writing; has been writing

  D. has written; has written

33. She ______ to the office than she got down to writing the report.

  A. has no sooner got B. had hardly got

  C. no sooner got D. had no sooner got

34. When he was alive, the old scientist used to say that knowledge ______ from practice and he gained his experience by doing a lot of practical work.

  A. was coming B. had come

  C. comes D. would come

35. --- Don’t forget to bring my new books tomorrow afternoon.

  --- No, I ______.

  A. don’t B. do C. won’t D. will

36. I decided to go to the library as soon as I ______.

   A. finished what I was doing

  B. finished what I did

   C. would finish what I was doing

  D. finish what I did

37. You won’t know whether the coat fits you until you ______ it on.

   A. will try B. have tried

  C. tried D. are trying

38. My dictionary ______. I have looked for it everywhere but still ______it.

  A. has lost; don’t find

  B. is missing; don’t find

  C. has lost; haven’t found

  D. is missing; haven’t found

39. ______ it with me and I’ll see what I can do.

   A. When left B. Leaving

  C. If you leave D. Leave

40. --- How are you planning to travel to Shanghai?

   --- I ______ yet, but I ______ taking a train.

   A. didn’t decide; am considering

   B. haven’t decided; consider

   C. haven’t decided; am considering

   D. hadn’t decided; have considered

41. --- Excuse me, sir. Would you do me a favour?

  --- Of course. What is it?

   --- I ______ if you could take me to the station.

   A. would wonder B. did wonder

   C. was wondering D. had wondered

  42. --- Got your driving license?

  --- No. I ______ too busy to have enough practice, so I didn’t take the driving test last week. I’m going to next week.

  A. was B. have been C. am D. had been

  43. With the development of science, more new technology ______ to the field of IT.

  A. has introduced B. is being introduced

   C. is introduced D. was introduced

  44. --- Who’s the man over there?

   --- It’s Jack.

   --- Oh? ______ in Italy.

  A. I think he’s

  B. I’ve thought he’s been

  C. I thought he was

  D. I’d thought he’d been

  45. --- I dropped in at your house at about ten last night, but you weren’t in.

  --- I ______ regular exercises at the club.

   A. did B. was doing C. had done D. have been doing

  46. --- Each of the students, working hard at their lessons, ______ the book.

  --- So have I.

  A. is reading B. has read C. reading D. reads

  47. The baby is generally healthy, but every now and then he ______ a cold.

  A. has caught B. is catchingC. will catch D. does catch

  48. It is when the plane ______ that you’d better find out at the booking office.

  A. would take off B. had taken off

  C. was taking off D. is taking off

  49. --- I’m sorry, but there’s no smoking on this flight.

  --- Oh, I ______ that. Sorry, I won’t again.

  A. don’t know B. didn’t know

  C. won’t know D. haven’t known

  50. I thought Jim would say something about his school report, but he ______ it.

   A. doesn’t mention B. hadn’t mentioned

C. didn’t mention D. hasn’t mentioned

 

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