高考英语一轮复习——同位语从句讲解及练习(附答案)

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高考英语一轮复习——同位语从句讲解及练习(附答案)

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同位语从句

◆◆◆辨认同位语从句

在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。一个名词(或其它形式)对另一个名词或代词进行修饰,限定或说明,这个名词(或其它形式)就是同位语。同位语与被它限定的词的格要一致,并常常紧挨在一起。

1. 名词作同位语

  Mr. Wang, my childs teacher, will be visiting us on Tuesday.王先生,我孩子的老师,星期二要来看我们。

2. 短语作同位语

  I, the oldest girl in the family, always had to care for the other children.我,作为家里最大的女孩,老得照料家中的其他孩子。

3. 直接引语作同位语

  But now the question comes to their minds, Did she die young because she was a clone?但是现在他们不得不思考这样的问题:多利早死是因为它是一只克隆羊吗?

4. 句子作同位语

  The girls were surprised at the fact that ocean ships can sail up the Great lakes.巨大的海轮可以开到五大湖,让表姐妹俩感到吃惊。

◆◆◆同位语从句用法

一、同位语从句一般跟在某些名词后面,用以说明该名词表示的具体内容。

I heard the news that our team had won.我听到了我们队获胜的消息。

可以跟同位语从句的抽象名词通常有newsideafactpromisequestiondoubtthoughthopemessagesuggestionwords(消息),possibility等。(承诺信息主意是事实;疑问想法与问题;希望消息建议是潜力。)

Ive come from Mr. Wang with a message that he wont be able to see you this afternoon. 我从王先生那里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午不能来看你了。

在某些名词表建议,命令,要求等(demand, wish, suggestion, resolution)后面的同位语从句要用虚拟语气 (即should+动词原形;should可省)

There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team. 有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

同位语从句前名词的数:同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word除外)加以修饰。

 Where did you get the idea that I could not come?你在哪儿听说我不能来?

二、英语中引导同位语从句的词通有连词thatwhether,连接代词whatwho。连接副词how, when, where等。(注:if, which 不能引导同位语从句。)

1. 连词that引导同位语从句(注:引导同位语从句的that不能省略)

The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong.你认为不动脑筋就能做好这件工作的想法是完全错误的。(作idea的同位语)

【注意】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。

He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane. 他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。

2. 连词whether引导同位语从句(注:if不能引导同位语从句)      

The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor. 我们是否请专家由家庭医生来定。

He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意这样一个问题。

3. 其它引导词引导的同位语从句

A、连接代词what, who, whom, whose引导同位语从句

1).I have no idea what size shoes she wears.我不知道她穿几号的鞋。(what作定语)

2).The question who will take his place is still not clear.who作主语)

B、连接副词when, where, how, why 引导同位语从句

We havent yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。

l have no idea When he will be back.我不知道他什么时候回来。

My question how I shall get in touch with him has not been answered.

三、有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开。在语法上叫做分隔式同位语从句。

The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city

他突然想起可能敌人已经逃出城了。

Several years laterword came that Napoleon himself was coming to inspect them

几年以后,有消息传来说拿破仑要亲自视察他们。

◆◆◆定语从句与同位语从句的区别

1.意义的不同

  同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来:

We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)

We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)

2.被修饰词语的区别

A.定语从句的先行词是名词或代词;而同位语从句的先行词只能是名词,而且仅限于ideaplanfacttheorypromisehopenewsdoubttruthinformationsuggestionquestionthoughtbeliefconclusion等少数名词。

  例如:

  The boy who is playing football is my classmate

  Those who work hard will succeed

  The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody

  The fact that you are talking about is important

  在句中,划线部分是定语从句,其先行词是名词 boy,它不能用作同位语从句的先行词。

  在句中,划线部分也是定语从句,其先行词是代词those,代词不能用作同位语从句的先行词。

  在句中,划线部分是同位语从句,其先行词是名词fact,它同样可以用作定语从句的先行词,句便是一例。

  由以上分析可见,同位语从句的先行词一定可以用作定语从句的先行词,但定语从句的先行词不一定能用作同位语从句的先行词。

  Bwhenwherewhy引导的定语从句的先行词一定分别是表示时间、地点和原因的名词,而三者引导的同位语从句的先行词则肯定不是表示时间、地点和原因的名词。

  例如:

  I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing

  I have no idea when she will be back

  在句中,划线部分是when引导的定语从句,其先行词day是表示时间的名词;

  在句中,划线部分是when引导的同位语从句,其先行词idea则不是表示时间的名词。

3.引导词的不同

  定语从句和同位语从句共同的引导词有四个:thatwhenwherewhy。下面把四个引导词分成两类说明它们在两种从句中的不同用法。

  A.引导词that

  引导定语从句的that叫做关系代词,它除了起连接作用,还在定语从句中充当一定成分,并且在意义上代表先行词;引导同位语从句的that叫做从属连词,它只起连接作用。不能省略。

  例如:

  The news that you told me yesterday was really exciting

  We heard the news that our team had won

  在句中,划线部分是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语,在意义上指代先行词news

  在句中,划线部分是同位语从句,that没有任何意义,只起连接作用。

that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。

  B.引导词whenwherewhy

  引导定语从句时,它们叫做关系副词,在从句中充当状语,可以转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式;引导同位语从句时,它们叫做连接副词,在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。

  例如:

  I will never forget the day when I joined the army

  We have no idea when she was born

  在句中,划线部分是定语从句,when在从句中作状语,它可以转换成on which的形式;

  在句中,划线部分是同位语从句, when在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。

  This is the house where I lived two years ago

  He put forward to the question where the meeting would be held

  在句中,划线部分是定语从句,where在从句中作状语,它可以转换成in which的形式;

  在句中,划线部分是同位语从句, where在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。

  This is the reason why she will not attend the meeting

  The teacher had no idea why Jack was absent

  在句中,划线部分是定语从句,why在从句中作状语,它可以转换成for which的形式;在句 中,划线部分是同位语从句,why在从句中充当状语,但不能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。

◆◆◆同位语从句-相关语法

1、同位语从句在句中的位置  

  1.一般情况下同位语从句跟在某些名词(newsideafactpromisehopemessage)的后面,用以说明该名词所表达的具体内容。

  Ive come from Mr Wang with a message that he wont be able to see you this afternoon.我从王先生那边得知一个消息,他说他今天下午不能来看你了。

  2.有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做分隔式同位语从句。

  The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home.她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。

2、同位语从句前名词的数  

  同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word除外)加以修饰。

  Where did you get the idea that I could not come?你在哪儿听说我不能来?

3、同位语从句的语气

suggestionadvicerequestorder等意为建议;命令;要求的名词后,同位语从句中的谓语动词通常用should +动词原形的虚拟语气结构,句中的should可以省略。

   Our teacher gave us some advice how we(should)use the computer.老师给我们提出了一些如何使用电脑的建议。

4、同位语从句的先行词  

  同位语从句的先行词通常是抽象名词,常见的有:idea, situation thought, fact, evidence, belief, doubt, fear, hope, question, theory, news, order, ability等等。

  How did the cheats explain the fact that the Emperor didn't feel the new clothes in him? 皇帝觉得身上并没有穿上新衣,对这个问题骗子是怎样解释的?

  代词it可用作同位语从句的先行词。这个it常放在某些动词或短语动词后作宾语,同时兼作其后that同位语从句的先行词。

  I owe it to you that I am still alive. 幸亏你,我现在还活着。

  有的语法学家把先行词it后的that从句看作是动词或介词的真正宾语。一般认为,这种it后的that 从句应看作it的同位语,因为它相当于主语+be+表语结构。

  You must see to it that the children don't catch cold. (=You must see to it, and It is that the children don't catch cold.)你要当心,别让孩子们着凉了。

5、短语及固定句式后的同位语从句

  I will come on condition that John is invited.如果约翰也被邀请的话,我就来。

  简析:短语On condition, on supposition, on the ground(s), on the understanding, with the exception, in spite of the fact, on the assumption及句式There BE+no doubt(hope, chance, possibility,)后的that从句为同位语从句。


练习题

1. His success was because of ________ he had been working hard.
A. that  B. the fact which  C.the fact that  D.the fact
2."Is Mary from New York City " "I don't know _______."
A. from what city does she come from
B. from what city she come
C. what city does she come from
D. what city she comes from
3.________ makes mistakes must correct them.
A. What B. That C. Whoever D. Whatever
4. The reason why I didn't go to Shanghai was ________ a new job.
A. because I got     B. because of getting
C. I got     D. that I got
5. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey.
A. while B. that C. if D. for
6. Henry killed the dog. I'll ask him why ________.
A. did he do that B. he did that
C. he did D. he has done so
7. Have you seen Henry lately My boss wants to know ________.
A. how he is getting along
B. how is he getting along
C. what he is getting along
D. what is he getting along
8. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants.
A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
9. He asked me ________ with me.
A. what is the trouble B. what wrong was
C. what was the matter D. what trouble it is
10. I am sure ________ he said is true.
A. that B. about that C. of that D. that what
11. When and why he came here ________ yet.
A. is not known B. are not known
C. has not known D. have not bee
12.I wonder how much ________.
A. does the watch cost B. did the watch cost
C. the watch costed D. the watch costs
13. Mary is ________ someone might recognize her.
A. afraid of   B. afraid about   C. afraid that   D. afraid for
14.________ is no reason for dismissing her.
A. Because she was a few minutes late
B. Owing to a few minutes late
C. The fact that she was a few minutes late
D. Being a few minutes late
15. They came to the conclusion ________ by a computer.
A. that not all things can be done
B. because of not all things be done
C. being not all things can be done
D. because not all things can be done
16. Why the explosion occurred was ________ the laboratory attendant had been careless.
A. for B. because C. since D. that
17. I don't doubt ________ he'll come.
A. that B. if C. what D. whether
18."Why did you go to the wrong class, Mr. Wang "
"Well, I forget _______ I was supposed to go to."
A. which the room B. which room C. what was the room D. what room was it
19. Output is now six times ________ it was before liberation.
A. that B. which C. what D. of which
20. Mary: Helen is a mere washer woman, yet she's now buying a big house.
Carol: Yes. Because she's always saved ________.
A. what little she earns B. how little she earns
C. for little she earns D. with little she earns
21._______ surprised me most was ________ such a little boy of seven could play the violin so well.
A. That...what B. What...that C. That...which D. What...which
22. We gave him ________ help we could.
A. which B. what C. that D. this
23. She is pleased with what you have given him and ________ you have told him.
A. that B. which C. all what D. all that
24. Excuse me would you please tell me ________
A. when the sports meet is taken place
B. when is the sports meet going to be held
C. when is the sports meet to begin
D. when the sports meet is to take place
25. Do you happen to know ________
A. what size shoes he wears
B. how big shoes he wears
C. what is the size of his shoes
D. what number shoes are his

26. This book will show you ________ can be used in other contexts.
A. how you have observed
B. how what you have observed
C. that you have observed
D. how that you have observed
27. Where do you think ________
A. has he gone   B. has he been
C. he's gone    D. was he
28. Do you know ________
A. how many populations there are in the world
B. how much population there is in the world
C. how many the population of the world is
D. what the population of the world is
29. Would you go and see ________ outside
A. what to take place B. what Tom has happened
C. what is happening D. what the matter had been
30. The subject of "What is interesting is that I do not even know him." is_______.
A. what B. interesting C. What is interesting D. I
31.________ I think he is Charles.
A. Who do you think he is
B. Do you think who he is
C. Whom do you think he is
D. Do you think who he is
32. He didn't know which room ________.
A. they lived B. they lived in
C. did they live D. did they live in
33. The little boy ate ________ his mother gave him.
A. that B. which C. whatever D. no matter what
34. The city is no longer ________.
A. what it is B. that it used to be C. which it was D. what it used to be
35. My parents used ________ they had to get a new car for me.
A. which B. that C. what D. all what
36.________ we go swimming every day ________ us a lot of good.
A. If...do B. That...do
C. If...does D. That...does
37.________ was the idea _______ the wife thought of
A. What...that B. That...what C. How...why D. Why...how
38._______ did he tell his wife ________ he wished to do
A. That...what B. What...that C. Where...which D. Which...where
39.One of the men held the view ________ the book said was right.
A. what that B. that what  C. that which  D. which that
40. I have no idea ________ or not he has finished the work.
A. if B. that C. whether D. which
41."Do you know ________ " "His father is a doctor."
A. what is his father B. who is his father
C. what his father is D. who his father is
42. Is this ________ we met each other two years ago
A. place B. place in which C. where D. place which
43. It ________ Bob drives badly.
A. thinks that B. is thought what C. thought that D. is thought that
44.We all know the truth ________ there are air, water and sunlight there are living things.
A. where B. wherever C. that D. that wherever
45. They discussed ________ they could settle the problem without others' help.
A. if B. that C. what D. whether
46. She asked ________.
A. what I was doing when she rang me up
B. what was I doing when she rang me up
C. when she rang me up what I was doing
D. when did she ring me up what I was doing
47. - May I borrow the ring
- You can take _______ you like.
A. no matter what B. which C. whichever D. that
48. He said that he was fond of ________.
A. what beautiful is B. what is beautiful
C. beautiful is what D. what it is beautiful
49. He insisted that he ________ in good health and _______ to work there.
A. was, be sent B. is, is sent C. be, was sent D. be, send
50. Do you know ________ he expects will give us a talk

A. who B. whom C. that D. whose
51. It's uncertain ________ the experiment is worth doing.
A. if B. that C. whether D. how
52. They would have fixed the telephone yesterday _________ it was a holiday.
A. except B. except for C. except that D. but for
53.________ is to do good all one's life and never do anything bad.
A. Whichever is hard B. No matter what is hard
C. What is hard D. All what is hard
54.________ the boy didn't take medicine made his mother angry.
A. That B. What C. How D. Which
55. As the day was fine, I made the suggestion ________ for a walk in the park.
A.we go B.we will go C.should we go D.that we go
56.____ we can't get seems better than ____ we have.
A. What, what B. What, that C. That, that D. That, what
57.____ you don't like him is none of my business.
A. What B. Who C. That D. Whether
58. You can't imagine ____ when they received these nice Christmas presents.
A. how they were excited B. how excited they were
C. how excited were they D. they were how excited
59.____ we'll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where
60________he really means is ________he disagrees with us.
A. What that B. That what
C. Why that D. If what
61._________is going to do the job will be decided by the Party committee.
A. That B. Why C. How D. Who
62._______we'll finish translating the book depends on the time.
A. When B. Why C. What D. That
63._______the house will be built will be discussed at tomorrow's meeting.
A. If  B. Where C. That D. What
64._______he won't go there is clear to all of us.
A. How B. What C. Why D. This
65._______you come or not is up to you.
A. What B. If C. Why D. Whether
66._______makes mistakes must correct them.
A. Who B. Anyone C. Whoever D. Anybody
67._______team will win the match is a matter of public concern.
A. Which B. That C. If D. How
68.Three days later, word came ________our country had sent up another man-made satellite.
A. which B. when C. that D. where
69.The problem is ________will go to the meeting.
A. why B. when C. what D. who
70.It looks _______ it were going to rain.
A. even if B. as if C. even though D. like
71.That is _______ he likes the place so much.
A. that B. what C. why D. how
72.That is ______ Lu Xun once lived.
A. what B. where C. that D. why
73.We thought _______ strange that Tom did not come yesterday.
A. that B. it C. this D. what
74.The fact _______ she had not said anything surprised all of us.
A. which B. what C. that D. how
75.What I'm considering now _________ the money we need.
A. is B. are C. were D. was

76.Can you tell me __________
A. who is that gentleman
B. that gentleman is who
C. who that gentleman is
D. whom is that gentleman
77.________leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.
A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who
78. It is well known _________ a person eats causes changes in the body.
A. that what B. that   C. what  D. how
79. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work.
A. that  B. which  C. what  D. such
80. Jack was soon told ________ he did was not necessary.
A. why B. that C. how D. why what
81. We should think carefully about ________ Mr. Needham said at the meeting.
A. that B. what C. which D. X
82. Can you point out ________ two radios are the best
A. which B. what C. that D. whether
83. You will easily know ________ video recorders (录相机) are the same.
A. what those B. that of those
C. that all of D. which of those
84. ________ you have seen things like these before doesn't matter.
A. If B. Whether C. What D. When
85. I asked her in English ________ she was, and she told me ________ she was an actress.
A. whothat B. whoX
C. whatX D. howthat
86. She took it for granted ________ I'd be back home an hour ago.
A. that B. whether C. if D. when
87. We think it possible ________ the local government will be able to solve the housing problem.
A. for B. that C. when D. how
88. Now there is a danger ________ the ground may fall in (沉下) under the heavy traffic.
A. whether B. if C. X D. that
89. At that time I had no idea ________ I could hand it to him without being seen.
A. if B. how C. which D. that how
90. Last Sunday he promised ________ today, but he hasn't appeared yet.
A. that he would come B. that he will come
C. he will come to see me D. whether he would come
91. Last Sunday he made a promise ________ he was free he would take me to Qingdao.
A. if B. that C. that if D. whether
92. Do you have any idea ________
A. when Miss Smith will arrive
B. when will Miss Smith arrive
C. how will Miss Smith arrive
D. why hasn't Miss Smith arrived
93. I have almost forgotten ________.
A. how Mr. Taylor's like B. what Mr. Taylor's face is like
C. what Mr. Taylor's face is D. which Mr. Taylor's face is like
94. The true value of life is not in ________, but ________.
A. how you get that you give
B. which you got what you give
C. what you get what you give
D. what do you getwhat do you give
95. Do you know ________
A. what is this used for B. what this is used for
C. which this is used D. that this is used for
96. ________ surprised me most was ________.
A. Thatthat she spoke Japanese so well
B. Whathow could she speak Japanese so well
C. Whatthat she spoke Japanese so well
D. Thatwhy she could speak Japanese so well
97. ________ is to dance.
A. That interests Mary really B. Which really interests Mary.
C. What really interests Mary D. What really interest Mary
98. We were greatly amused by ________.
A. what you have told us B. which you had told us
C. what you told us D. that you told us
99. These computers are different from ________.
A. that we expected B. what we expected
C. which we have expected D. what we expect
100. ________ Tom liked to eat was different from ________.
A. Thatthat you had expected
B. What that you had expected
C. Thatwhat you had expected
D. Whatwhat you had expected

 

 

 

 

 


【答案】
1-5.CDCDB       6-10.BABCD      11-15.ADCCA
16-20.DABCA    21-25.BBDDA     26-30.BCDCC
31-35.ABCDC     36-40.DABBC     41-45.CCDDD
46-50.ACBAA     51-55.CCCAD     56-60.ACBBA
61-65 DABCD     66-70 CACDB     71-75 CBBCA
76-80 CCCCD     81-85 BADBC     86-90 ABDBA
91-95 CABCB     96-100 CCCBD

 

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