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高考一轮复习学案 第32讲 风俗习惯语言文化类文章(解析版+原卷版)

高考一轮复习学案 第32讲 风俗习惯语言文化类文章(解析版+原卷版)

2019-03-16
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第32讲 风俗习惯、语言文化类文章(原卷版) "风俗习惯、语言文化类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。本话题包括社会生活、社会风情、政治经济、人文历史、自然资源、文化习俗、文化遗产等方面的情况; 文章选材来源于各个国家的主要名胜或历史事件;命题以细节题为主,有一定主观推断题;涉及一定的地理常识、历史知识和风俗习惯。语言文化类主要包含英美英语的差异、英语和文化、语言学习的困难和策略、语言和交际的态度、学习方法和学习策略等方面。这些话题与学生的日常学习密切相关,通过这些话题的学习和考查,可以让学生了解中西方的风俗文化及其语言背后的文化差异,研究学习方法和策略,激发学生学习外语的热情,促进他们的身心健康。 一、真题链接 【2018-2019学年辽宁省瓦房店市重点中学联考B篇】 Everglades National Park (大沼泽地国家公园) is located in the state of Florida. It is the largest wilderness in the entire country and makes up 25% of the wetlands in the state. The park is home to several rare and endangered species. It is also the third largest national park in the US, after Death Valley and Yellowstone. Each year, about 1 million tourists visit the park. On a global level, it has been announced as a World Heritage Site. Unlike most other national parks, Everglades National Park was created to protect an ecosystem (生态系统) from damage. In 1947, President Harry Truman spoke at the official opening of Everglades National Park, saying the goal of creating the park was to protect forever a wild area that could never be replaced. 10,000 different islands make up Everglades National Park. Each of these islands is lived by natural wildlife. The Everglades is home to about 15 species that are endangered. In addition, more than 350 bird species and 300 species of fresh and saltwater fish live within the park. The Everglades is also home to 40 species of mammals and 50 reptile species. There are many ways to explore the Everglades. Visitors can see alligators (短吻鳄) while hiking the Anhinga Trail. The Everglades is one of the only places on Earth where freshwater alligators and saltwater crocodiles live in the same area. Visitors using airboats are likely to see large groups of birds. Some visitors might enjoy riding bicycles through Shark Valley. Others may want to move slowly through waters where they can see insects and wildlife closely. According to experts, changes to the Everglades are becoming a danger to several different kinds of wildlife. They say it is a result of actions the US government began more than 50 years ago, and settlers began even earlier. 1.In the first paragraph, we’re mainly told that ________. A.Florida is famous for its wetlands B.the US has three important national parks C.Everglades National Park is of great value D.Everglades National Park is popular with visitors 2.How does the author describe the richness of wildlife in the park? A.By listing figures. B.By personally experiencing. C.By making a comparison. D.By carrying on a study. 3.From the passage, we know that ________. A.in fact Everglades National Park is a big island B.visitors are not allowed to stay in the water in the park C.President Harry Truman first suggested setting up the park D.the park is among the few places where alligators and crocodiles live together 4.What would be further discussed if the passage is continued? A.What the government has done to protect the park. B.How the park’s environment was badly changed. C.What readers can do to help to save the wetlands. D.How important endangered wildlife is to the world. 【2018全国卷Ⅰ阅读C (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)】 Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education. Especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many Languages to disappear,and dominant languages such as English.Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. At present, the world has about 6 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages. Often spoken by many people while hot. wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers.Europe has only around 200 Languages: the Americas about 1,000. Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6.000, which means that half the worlds languages are spoken by fewer people than that. Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival. 1. What can we infer about languages in huntergatherer times? A.They developed very fast. B. They were large in number. C. They had similar patters. D. They were closely connected 2. Which of the following best explains"dominant " underlined in paragraph 2? A.Complex. B. Advanced. C.Powerful. D.Modem. 3. How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present? A.About 6 800 B.About 3 400 C.About 2.400 D.About 1-200 4. What is the min idea of the text? A. New languages will be created. B Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages C. Human development results in fewer languages D. Geography determines language evolution. 点睛:长难句解读 In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 分析:and连接两个并列句,前面的介词短语in. . .作时间状语,all和前面的名词短语是同位语。 句意:在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【风俗习惯类】 1.ancient? adj. 2.anniversary?n. 3.awkward?adj. 4.belief?adj. 5.casual adj 6.cause?n 7.caution?adj 8.ceremony?n 9.chief?adj 10.concern?v 11.cooperation?n. 12.cultural? 13.custom?n. 14.decorate?vt. 15.fascinating?adj. 16.monument?n. 17.moral?adj. 18.pray?v. 19.remind?vt. 20.remove?vt. 21.sacred?adj. 22.sacrifice?n.&v. 23.separate?v. 24.temple?n. 25.history?n. 【语言学习类】 1.accent n. 2.accumulate vt.& vi. → n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj. → adv.精确地,准确地→ n.精确,准确 4.classify vt. 5.consult v. 6.correction n. 7.effective adj. → n.效果,作用 8.dialect n. 9.enlarge vt. 10.enrich vt. 11.excellent adj. → adv.极好地;优秀地 12.expression n. 13.grasp vt. 14.fluently adv. 15.frequently adj. → adj.频繁的 16.memorize v. 17.pronunciation n. → vt.& vi.发音 18.recognize v. 19.scan vt.& vi. 20.sentence n. 21.shortcoming n. 22.shortly adv. 23.skim vt.& vi. 24.spelling n. 25.standard n.& adj. 26.straight adj. 27.stress n. 28.term n. 29.usage n. 30.vocabulary n. 31.wonderful adj. 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 【风俗习惯类】 1.Chinese traditional culture 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for 3.put forward 4.attend a ceremony 5.come into being 6.culture shock 7.date back to/date from 8.follow a custom 9.get together 10.in memory of 11.in honour of 12.pass down from generation to generation 13.have a great effect on 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development 15.have a better understanding of 16.Beijing Opera 17.spread Chinese culture 18.fit in 19.make a brief introduction to 20.experience diverse Chinese culture 【语言学习类】 1.at present 2.attach importance to 3.because of 4.come up 5.form the habit of 6.have a good command of 7.have a good knowledge of 8.insist on 9.keep/bear...in mind 10.look up 11.make progress 12.make full use of 13.pick up 14.put...to use 15.such as ★【即学即练】 【2018江苏省徐州市第三中学高三 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)联考】 If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation. Sarah Lynn, an educational consultant and teacher, thinks English learners can improve their ability to remember and use new words by testing themselves. She adds that self-testing improves retrieval — the ability to use and remember new words. Lynn is not the only expert who recommends self-testing. A paper in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition says one benefit of testing practice is that it improves retrieval. Retrieving information once makes retrieving that information easier in the future. In addition, the paper says, when students test themselves as part of studying, they learn what they do not know. When students know what they do not understand, they can pay attention to overcoming their weaknesses. Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying. Then, they should test themselves by thinking about what they have learned. She recommends that learners make themselves write or speak something. Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it. This will allow learners to test what they know. Next time you are studying English, try to test yourself. But do not just assume that you can read something once or twice and fully understand it. Even if you highlight important points or take notes in a class, you probably do not fully understand what you learned. After all, Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years. They often compete in races to test their skills. 1.What’s the common situation faced by English learners? A. They fail to come up with new ideas. B. They are not familiar with a certain topic. C. They don’t learn as well as they think. D. They don’t know how to improve their test-taking skills. 2.Which is the advice given by Lynn about self-testing? A. Recall what’s learned with the book closed. B. Remember what’s learned by repetitive reciting. C. Question your teachers on what you doubt bravely. D. Challenge yourself to learn from videos. 3.Why are Olympic athletes mentioned? A. To show how to be successful athletes. B. To make people confident of learning. C. To warn English learners not to be proud. D. To stress the significance of practice. 阅读理解的命题点有一定规律可寻,掌握命题规律,能帮助考生明确阅读时应该重点关注的内容,抓阅读的“敏感点”,提高阅读的针对性,快速、准确锁定信息区间,为准确解题圈定信息源。 1.段首、段尾处常考 无论是议论文还是说明文,一篇文章往往分成几个部分或层次进行说明和论证,每个段落一般都是一个部分或者一个层次。英美作者写文章的逻辑性非常强,文章结构都非常规范,因此每个段落的首句和尾句也经常是该段落的主旨句,也是出题的重点区域。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读B】 Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762. 24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City? A. Its business culture. B. Its small population. C. Its geographical position. D. Its favourable climate. 【答案】24. C 【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。 24. 细节理解题。根据文章首段首句Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。 2.转折处常考 文章的转折处也是体现作者观点和文章主题的地方,作者经常会通过先抑后扬的方法在转折词之后才明确提出自己的观点。转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者会偏重其中的某一方。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能作上标记以方便做题时查找。一些明显的转折词包括but, however, on the contrary,yet(句首)(句首), as a matter of fact, in fact等。 3.对比、比较处常考 另外,作者也经常把两个事物、两件事实、两种观点进行对比,从而论证自己观点的正确性。表示对比的一些标志性词语有 unlike, by contrast, In comparison, be comparedwith等。命题者常对对比的双方属性进行考查。比如文章中说“甲具有Ⅹ属性,但乙与甲不同,那乙有何属性?”答:非X属性。此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于其他考点中。 4.因果处常考 因果逻辑关系也很受高考英语命题者的青睐,因为因果关系阐述了两个事件或者事实之间的内在联系,是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方,出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会将因果倒,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止受到迷惑,表示因果关系的词有:because,?because?of,?for,?since,due?to,?thanks?to,?as?aresult?of,?as,?so,?thus,therefore, consequently,?in?consequence. as?a?result,result?from,?result?in,?cause,?lead?to,?attribute to等,有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是在逻辑上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行判断和推理。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读C】 While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the National Center for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage. Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize — which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture — on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award. Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art (CAA). His office is located at the Xiangshan campus(校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations. The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves(曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view. Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素). Wang’s works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of traditions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao Ando, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize. Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. "That is only evidence that traditions once existed," he said. "Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created, " he said. "Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are, " said Wang. The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said. 30. What made Wang’s architectural design a success? A. The mixture of different shapes. B. The balance of East and West. C. The use of popular techniques. D. The harmony of old and new. 【答案】30.D 【解析】文章主要报道了中国建筑设计师王澍在其作品中融合中国传统建筑文化,获得了建筑界的诺贝尔奖——普利策奖,这让中国建筑现在得到了国际认可。 30. 细节理解题。根据第五段最后一句:This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素).译文:由于融合了现代与传统的中国元素,这一创作吸引了很多人的注意,故D正确。 5.举例说明处常考 一般的议论文和说明文都需要一些例子来支持作者的论证和说明,这些例子往往与作者的论述和说明有很大的关联,考纲中明确提出考生需要掌握区分论点与论据的能力,因此这也成了考题出处的热点,这种题日在文章中的线索非常明显,一般都带有如下的标志性词汇:for example,?for?instance,?take?..?as?an?example,?such? as,?like等,考生要牢记一般文章举例处的前后句就是与该例子相关的作者论点,所以在做此类题目的时候就需要追本测源,寻找论点,才能保证所选答案的正确性。 6.特殊标点处常考 英文中主要使用逗号和句号,文中一且出现一些特殊的标点符号,通常都会表达作者的特殊意图,因此特殊的标点符号处也经常成为出题的对象,因此考生应该对以下标点符号的用法较为熟悉: 冒号的出现有两大作用一后面内容或者用来解冒号|释说明前面抽象的内容,或者是对前面内容的总结。不管是解释还是总结,出现冒号通常要重点选读冒号后面的内容 括号内的内容通常用来解释或强调括号前面的内容,我们在平时的学习过程中见到括号一般都跳括号过,但是在英语中通常会把要强调的内容放在括号中,因此不但不可以跳过,反而要认真仔细分析 破折号后面的内容通常表示对前面内容的解释说破折号明或补充,说明此处信息至关重要。但要注意,两个破折号的作用通常为插入语,就不再是重点信息了 7.结论建议处常考 一般情况下出现?the?research?indicates,?the?report suggests等类似的结论建议性表达方式时,表明此处为文中:提及的实验和研究的结果或作者要阐明论证的结果。出题者通常不会考查实验和研究的过程,而将注意力放在结论和结果上,因此阅读过程中要格外注意这些表达的出现。 8.观点态度处常考 文章中作者对于某人或某事物的观点或态度,以及文口章中涉及的其他人或组织机构的观点或态度也常受出题人的青睐。解题时要留意文章中出现doubt,?appreciate,?hate, against等表达观点态度的词语的地方,以及一些带有感情色彩的特殊句式(祈使句、感叹句、反问句等)。 例1.【2018·浙江卷阅读C】 As cultural symbols go, the American car is quite young. The Model T Ford was built at the Piquette Plant in Michigan a century ago, with the first rolling off the assembly line(装配线) on September 27, 1908. Only eleven cars were produced the next month. But eventually Henry Ford would build fifteen million of them. Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger. For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going forward at high speed to find new worlds. The road novel, the road movie, these are the most typical American ideas, born of abundant petrol, cheap cars and a never-ending interstate highway system, the largest public works project in history. In 1928 Herbert Hoover imagined an America with “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” Since then, this society has moved onward, never looking back, as the car transformed America from a farm-based society into an industrial power.zxx.k The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster. In America the demand for oil has grown by 22 percent since 1990. The problems of excessive(过度的)energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. Friedman points out that the green economy(经济)is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.” 1. Why is hamburger mentioned in paragraph 2? A. To explain Americans’ love for travelling by car. B. To show the influence of cars on American culture. C. To stress the popularity of fast food with Americans. D. To praise the effectiveness of America’s road system. 2. What has the use of cars in America led to? A. Decline of economy. B. Environmental problems. C. A shortage of oil supply. D. A farm-based society. 3. What is Friedman’s attitude towards America’s future? A. Ambiguous. B. Doubtful. C. Hopeful. D. Tolerant. 【答案】1. B 2. B 3. C 【解析】文章讲述了汽车在美国经济和文化上的重要作用,也指出了汽车带来的环境问题。 1. 推理判断题。根据第二段Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger.可知,现代美国诞生于公路和汽车,汽车塑造了美国文化最持久的一些方面。Hamburger就是汽车塑造的美国文化的一个方面。用这个例子是在说明汽车对美国文化的影响,故选B。 2. 细节理解题。根据第四段The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster.可知,美国汽车的迅速发展,导致全球生态灾难,也就是造成环境问题。故选B。 3. 推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的He fears the worst, but hopes for the best.和最后一段中的Friedman points out that the green economy(经济) is a chance to keep American strength.可见,Friedman虽然对未来担心,但抱有最好的希望,他指出了发展绿色经济是保持美国实力的一个机会的想法。可见Friedman对未来是充满希望的,故选C。 点睛:阅读理解题的具体方法: 1. 略读材料,大概了解原文,掌握中心或主旨。 2. 按文章的体裁,作者写作的组织模式及有关的信息词。如for example, first, second…等预测应该到何处寻找自己所需要的事实。 3.将精力放在你所需要的细节上,快速通篇跳读,全文扫视,找出细节之处,待找到含细节句子时,放慢速度,仔细核对比较内容,直至找到答案。如小题1要求分析第二段提到hambueger的作用,根据第二段Mordern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American cultural: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger,可知,现代美国诞生于公路和汽车,汽车塑造了美国文化最持久的一些方面。 Hamburger就是汽车塑造的美国文化的一个方面。用这个例子是在说明汽车对美国文化的影响。 变式训练 【2018山西省太原市高三模拟阅读B】 Today we talk about a time when half the world is waking from the dark, cold winter months. Spring! We often describe “spring” as a time of rebirth, renewal and awakening. Many trees are blossoming and early flowers are pushing through the earth. Things are coming to life! But the word “spring” is not just a season. It is also a verb that means something going on or coming out quickly. When you put “spring” and “life” together, you will get “spring to life”. This expression means something suddenly becomes very active or perhaps seems more alive! You may “spring to life” after hearing that a distant friend will be visiting you. Or maybe your favorite soccer team finally “sprang to life” in the second half, played well and won the match. Now, besides being a season and a verb the noun “spring” refers to a metal coil (线圈) that is wound tightly. When the coil unwinds, it often jumps. So, we often say a person “has a spring in his step” if he is lively and active. He might even appear to jump, or bounce a little when he walks. There is another way we use “spring” as a description. In the case of a “spring chicken”, “spring” means young. However, “spring chicken” is also an informal, humorous way to refer to someone who isn’t young at all. So, we use this expression in the negative form, as in “no spring chicken”. For example, let’s say you know an 85-year-old man who decides to run a marathon, even though he has never exercised before. You could say, “That’s amazing! After all, he’s no spring chicken.” But be careful when using this expression. It could be a little disrespectful. Let’s say your boss shows you a picture of his wife, and you say, “Wow, she’s no spring chicken.” That response would be disrespectful and a bad career move. 1. What does “spring” mean in the expression “spring to life”? A. The season after winter. B. Being young and healthy. C. A tightly wound metal coil. D. To occur or appear quickly. 2. What is the passage mainly about? A、The origin of the word “spring” B. The meaning of the season “spring”. C. Some expressions with the word “spring”. D. Some characteristics of the season “spring”. 3. How does someone feel when he “has a spring in his step”? A. Angry B. Surprised C. Happy D. Frightened 4. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A. Being young is a great advantage in career development. B. Women may feel offended when described as “no spring chicken”. C. Using “spring-related” expressions in conversations seems impolite. D. Expressions with the word “spring” are always disrespectful to others. 【2018河北衡水中学高三第八次模拟A】 Sydney Trains is one of the most economical, reliable and convenient ways to travel throughout Sydney and its surrounds. Our network, the NSW Trains Intercity, covers suburban Sydney and extends to the Hunter, Central Coast, Blue Mountains, Southern Highlands and South Coast regions. The network is made up of several color-coded lines. Trains from different lines can share the same platform, so check display screen and listen to announcements. Ticket prices are generally based on the distance traveled. You can visit transportnsw. Info for details. Getting to the City. In Sydney, if you’re near a train station, you’re on your way to the city. Every rail line leads directly or indirectly to the City Circle. It’s the loop around the central business district of Sydney. Most City stations are underground so look out for the sign on street level. Automatic ticket gates Large stations have automatic gates for entry to, and exit from, the station. If you have an Opal card or a ticket which has a magnetic stripe you must use the automatic gates. You may use the wide gate for wheelchair, pram or luggage access. Station staff will assist you. Night Ride buses Most trains do not operate between midnight and 4:00 a.m. For your convenience a special Night Ride bus service is available between these hours on most Sydney suburban lines. Track work In order for the tracks to the maintained, we sometimes have to replace train with buses, particularly at weekends, Please check the track work section for the latest service alterations on your line. 1. To get more information about ticket pries, travelers had better________. A. go to the City Circle B. visit a website C. check display screen D. listen to announcements 2. What service is offered to travelers in need at most big stations? A. A free Opal card. B. Earlier entry to the station. C. Help from station workers. D. A ticket with a magnetic stripe. 3. Which is the best convenient time to travel by Sydney Trains? A. At midnight. B. On Sunday afternoon. C. Between midnight and 4:00 a.m. D. At 6:00 p.m. on Wednesday. 【2018陕西宝鸡市高三教学质量检测二】 ? Mid- February of 2018 brings us two key events: Valentine’s Day and the start of the Year of the Dog. Happiness and romance are in the air. Both at home and abroad various celebrations are held for the two western and Chinese festivals. Here are some activities recommended to you, which few people will miss the chance to participate in them. ????Dog themed exhibition held in Beijing to greet the Spring Festival ??? The Chinese Lunar New Year will start on Feb 16, making start of the Year of the Dog. To celebrate it, an exhibition entitled “Best Wishes from the Auspicious Dog” will be opened. ??? The place: At the Capital Museum in Beijing. ??? The exhibition time: From Feb.14, 2018 till March 18, 9:00 am — 6:00 pm per day. ??? The main theme: The relationship between dogs and humans, the exhibition has collected cultural relics, pictures, historical facts to show that dogs have accompanied us throughout history. ??? A large celebration held by Boston Chinese community to celebrate the Year of the Dog ??? Date: From February 14 to February 16, 2018. 9:30 — 5pm. ??? Place: In Copley Square Hotel, Boston. ??? Programs: Dragon dance, lion dance, magic show, Beijing opera and ballet. ??? Food: Many traditional Chinese foods such as hotpots, dumplings, rice cakes. ??? Fare: Sponsored by a large Chinese Cooperation, all the fees are free. ??? Highlights: Anyone whose birthday is in the Year of the dog will receive a mascot of the dog. ??? Attention: Participants need to register in advance by visiting the website http://www.chsb.com. ??? The 2018 Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair to welcome the coming Chinese lunar new year. ??? With the theme of embracing the Year of the Dog, the 2018 Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair kicks off in Chengde city, North China’s Hebei province. More than 50 groups of lanterns in various shapes and sizes are illuminated during the festival to promote the Chinese Spring Festival culture. In addition to the carved ice exhibition, visitors can also watch folk performances. ??? Opening time: From February 14, Valentine’s Day till March 2 ??? Highlights: An dating area will be set aside for the singles to find the other half of theirs. ??? Admission: 1. 100 yuan for each adult, children under 15 free. ???????????????????????? 2. Anyone who married in the year of the dog will enjoy the half price. 1.Which celebrate will last longest according to the text? A.The dog themed exhibition in Beijing. B.The large celebration in Boston. C.Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair in Chengde. D.The celebration in Copley Square Hotel 2.In Boston celebration, a mascot of the dog will be received by anyone born in ________. A.2004 B.1996 C.2012 D.1994 3.How much will a couple married in the year of the dog pay for Dingsheng Lantern Fair admission? A.50 yuan B.100 yuan C.200 yuan D.150 yuan 【2018安徽省皖江名校联盟高三12月联考】 Tea is obviously a big deal in Britain, but have you ever wondered how it became a thing? Tomato sauce is not Italian; the tomato is native to South America and was not introduced to Europe until the 16th century. Tea isn’t British, it wasn’t even all that popular for Britons until the 17th century. But now it is as British as dull weather and red phone booths. Tea is of such great importance that it was featured in the Evening Standard written by George Orwell back in 1946. The famous author describes the beverage(饮品) thusly "tea is one of the main stays of civilization in this country." But when, exactly, did this practice become in fashion? The year was 1662, a mere 111 years before insurgents(茶党) from the soon-to-be ruling champions of the Revolutionary War dumped a whole bunch of tea into Boston Harbor. Catherine of Braganza of Portuguese royalty married King Charles II of England, and then went on to make teatime a thing.But the thirst for tea fell at one time—the costs to transport it from the Far East were far more than Britons could afford. However, when Catherine started to make tea consumption a daily practice, it passed on to the other nobles. Not long after the practice was initially adopted by the upper class,the East India company began to import more tea to meet the demand. With the prices lowered,everybody could afford to have a good taste, and suddenly tea was the drink of the every man. After centuries of ritual(习惯), it has become entirely rooted in the British identity itself. Turkey may consume the most tea annually, but the British still hold the title of association. 1. The best tile for the passage is probably . A. Why the British drink so much tea B. Why tea is so popular across the world C. How tea was introduced into Europe D. Which kind of tea is the most favored 2. The underlined word "it" in Paragraph 2 refers to . A. tomato B. tomato sauce C. tea D. a thing 3. According to Paragraph 4, Britons' interest in tea once dropped because . A. it was not drinkable B. they were not used to it C. it was not affordable D. they refused anything foreign 4. What can we know from the passage? A. George Orwell promoted tea sales across England. B. King Charles II of England drank tea on a daily basis. C. The Turkish produce the most tea every year. D. People may associate tea with Britons a lot. 【2018豫南九校高三下学期第一次联考】 China has been the birthplace of many of the world's greatest inventions. It was, for example, the first country to produce paper money. Before the invention of paper money and coins, people used many different kinds of things for buying and selling.___16___This exchange of goods and services for other goods and services is called bartering. ___17___ In 1200 BC, people in China began to use shells(贝壳) as money. Usually the shells used as money were very small. This made it easier for people to carry money over long distances, and allowed for trade to develop between different parts of the country. In the years which followed this invention, many other countries around the world began to do the same,___18___The next development was in 1000 BC, when China started making bronze and copper shells. It wasn't long before the Chinese made round coins out of metal.___19___By 500 BC, metal coins had begun to appear in countries like Persia and Greece, and later in the Roman Empire. About 1000 years later, leather was used as money in China, and in 806 AD, the first paper banknotes were produced by the Chinese people.___20___ A. People also began collecting foreign coins as souvenirs. B. However, as economies developed, such exchanges became impractical. C. It was still many years before paper currency appeared in Europe. D. They also used tiny shells as money for buying and selling. E. As time went by, trade between countries increased. F. During that time, for example, buying a chicken might cost several potatoes. G. The very first coins often had holes in them so that people could string them together. 【2018安徽六校教育研究会高三二模】 Americans use many expressions with the word dog. People in the United States love their dogsand treat them well. They take their dogs for walks, let them play outside and give them good foodand medical care. 1 The expression, to lead a dog’s life, describes a person who has an unhappy existence. Some people say we live in a dog-eat-dog world. 2 They say that to be successful, aperson has to work like a dog. This means they have to work very, very hard. Such hard work can make people dog-tired. And, the situation would be even worse if they became sick as a dog. Still, people say every dog has its day. This means that every person enjoys a successful periodduring his or her life. To be successful, people often have to learn new skills. Yet, some people saythat you can never teach an old dog new tricks. 3 Some people are compared to dogs in bad ways. People who are unkind or uncaring can be described as meaner than a junkyard dog. Husbands and wives use this doghouse term when they are angry at each other. For example, a woman might get angry at her husband for coming home late orforgetting their wedding anniversary. She might tell him that he is in the doghouse. 4 However, the husband may decide that it is best to leave things alone and not create more problems. He might decide to let sleeping dogs lie. 5 The dog days of summer are the hottest days of the year. A rainstorm may cool the weather. But we do not want it to rain too hard. We do not want it to rain cats and dogs. A. She may not treat him nicely until he apologizes. B. Dog expressions also are used to describe the weather. C. They firmly belief that dogs are the best friends of human beings. D. She will drop a line to remind him of it or ring him back at once. E. However, dogs without owners to care for them lead a different kind of life. F. That means many people are competing for the same things, like good jobs. G. They believe that older people do not like to learn new things and will not change the way they do things. 20 第32讲 风俗习惯、语言文化类文章(解析版) "风俗习惯、语言文化类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。本话题包括社会生活、社会风情、政治经济、人文历史、自然资源、文化习俗、文化遗产等方面的情况; 文章选材来源于各个国家的主要名胜或历史事件;命题以细节题为主,有一定主观推断题;涉及一定的地理常识、历史知识和风俗习惯。语言文化类主要包含英美英语的差异、英语和文化、语言学习的困难和策略、语言和交际的态度、学习方法和学习策略等方面。这些话题与学生的日常学习密切相关,通过这些话题的学习和考查,可以让学生了解中西方的风俗文化及其语言背后的文化差异,研究学习方法和策略,激发学生学习外语的热情,促进他们的身心健康。 一、真题链接 【2018-2019学年辽宁省瓦房店市重点中学联考B篇】 Everglades National Park (大沼泽地国家公园) is located in the state of Florida. It is the largest wilderness in the entire country and makes up 25% of the wetlands in the state. The park is home to several rare and endangered species. It is also the third largest national park in the US, after Death Valley and Yellowstone. Each year, about 1 million tourists visit the park. On a global level, it has been announced as a World Heritage Site. Unlike most other national parks, Everglades National Park was created to protect an ecosystem (生态系统) from damage. In 1947, President Harry Truman spoke at the official opening of Everglades National Park, saying the goal of creating the park was to protect forever a wild area that could never be replaced. 10,000 different islands make up Everglades National Park. Each of these islands is lived by natural wildlife. The Everglades is home to about 15 species that are endangered. In addition, more than 350 bird species and 300 species of fresh and saltwater fish live within the park. The Everglades is also home to 40 species of mammals and 50 reptile species. There are many ways to explore the Everglades. Visitors can see alligators (短吻鳄) while hiking the Anhinga Trail. The Everglades is one of the only places on Earth where freshwater alligators and saltwater crocodiles live in the same area. Visitors using airboats are likely to see large groups of birds. Some visitors might enjoy riding bicycles through Shark Valley. Others may want to move slowly through waters where they can see insects and wildlife closely. According to experts, changes to the Everglades are becoming a danger to several different kinds of wildlife. They say it is a result of actions the US government began more than 50 years ago, and settlers began even earlier. 1.In the first paragraph, we’re mainly told that ________. A.Florida is famous for its wetlands B.the US has three important national parks C.Everglades National Park is of great value D.Everglades National Park is popular with visitors 2.How does the author describe the richness of wildlife in the park? A.By listing figures. B.By personally experiencing. C.By making a comparison. D.By carrying on a study. 3.From the passage, we know that ________. A.in fact Everglades National Park is a big island B.visitors are not allowed to stay in the water in the park C.President Harry Truman first suggested setting up the park D.the park is among the few places where alligators and crocodiles live together 4.What would be further discussed if the passage is continued? A.What the government has done to protect the park. B.How the park’s environment was badly changed. C.What readers can do to help to save the wetlands. D.How important endangered wildlife is to the world. 【答案】CADB 【解析】 语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了作为世界文化遗产之一,位于美国佛罗里达州的大沼泽地国家公园。 1.选C 段落大意题。在第一段中,作者从多个角度来突出大沼泽地国家公园的重要性,即强调它的价值所在。 2.选A 细节理解题。根据第三段中提到的“more than 350 bird species” “300 species of fresh and saltwater fish” “40 species of mammals”和“50 reptile species”可知,作者是通过列举数据来描述大沼泽地国家公园野生动物的丰富性的。 3.选D 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段第三句可知,大沼泽地国家公园是为数不多的短吻鳄和鳄鱼居住在一起的一个地方。 4.选B 推理判断题。最后一段谈到“the US government”和“settlers”的行为对大沼泽地国家公园造成了破坏, 而至于如何破坏的没有具体展开。由此可推断, 接下来文章最有可能谈大沼泽地国家公园的环境是如何被破坏的。 【2018全国卷Ⅰ阅读C (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)】 Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education. Especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many Languages to disappear,and dominant languages such as English.Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. At present, the world has about 6 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages. Often spoken by many people while hot. wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers.Europe has only around 200 Languages: the Americas about 1,000. Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6.000, which means that half the worlds languages are spoken by fewer people than that. Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival. 1. What can we infer about languages in huntergatherer times? A.They developed very fast. B. They were large in number. C. They had similar patters. D. They were closely connected 2. Which of the following best explains"dominant " underlined in paragraph 2? A.Complex. B. Advanced. C.Powerful. D.Modem. 3. How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present? A.About 6 800 B.About 3 400 C.About 2.400 D.About 1-200 4. What is the min idea of the text? A. New languages will be created. B Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages C. Human development results in fewer languages D. Geography determines language evolution. 【答案】B CBC 【解析】本文是一篇议论文。文章讲述了随着社会的发展人类语言越来越少及其原因。 1. 推理判断题。根据文章第一段中的When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers, small, tightly knit (联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other... when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.可知,当世界以依靠狩猎为生的人居住的时候,小而联系紧密的群落形成了他们彼此之间独立的讲话模式。当世界上的人口数量不到一千万时,语言种类达到了12000种。由此推知,当时的语言种类很多。故选B。 2. 猜测词义题。根据文章第二段中的dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.可知,英语、西班牙语和汉语正在替代其他语言。由此推知dominant languages意为:强有力的语言。故选C。 3. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段中的At present, the world has about 6,800 languages.和The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that. 可知,目前世界上大约有6800种语言,但是讲的人数少于6000人的占一半即3400.故选B。 4. 主旨要义题。根据文章第一段中的主题句Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going.可知,语言的产生和消失进行了几千年,但最近时代语言产生的少,消失的太多。故选C。 点睛:长难句解读 In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 分析:and连接两个并列句,前面的介词短语in. . .作时间状语,all和前面的名词短语是同位语。 句意:在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【风俗习惯类】 1.ancient? adj. 2.anniversary?n. 3.awkward?adj. 4.belief?adj. 5.casual adj 6.cause?n 7.caution?adj 8.ceremony?n 9.chief?adj 10.concern?v 11.cooperation?n. 12.cultural? 13.custom?n. 14.decorate?vt. 15.fascinating?adj. 16.monument?n. 17.moral?adj. 18.pray?v. 19.remind?vt. 20.remove?vt. 21.sacred?adj. 22.sacrifice?n.&v. 23.separate?v. 24.temple?n. 25.history?n. 【答案速递】 1.ancient?adj.古代的 2.anniversary?n.周年纪念日 3.awkward?adj.令人尴尬的,使人难堪的 4.belief?n.信条,信念 5.casual?adj.漫不经心的,不经意的,非正式的 6.cause?n.原因,起因 ?vt.促使,引起,使发生 7.caution?n.谨慎,小心;警告 8.ceremony?n.典礼,仪式;礼节 9.chief?adj.主要的,首要的 10.concern?v.&n.涉及;关心 11.cooperation?n.合作 12.cultural?adj.文化的 13.custom?n.习惯;习俗,风俗 14.decorate?vt.装饰,装潢,修饰 15.fascinating?adj.魅力无穷的 16.monument?n.纪念碑,纪念馆 17.moral?adj.道德的 18.pray?v.祈祷 19.remind?vt.提醒,使记起 20.remove?vt.移动;拿走;脱掉(衣服等) 21.sacred?adj.神圣的,上帝的 22.sacrifice?n.&v.牺牲;供奉 23.separate?v.使分开,使分离 ?adj.单独的,分开的 24.temple?n.庙宇,寺庙 25.history?n.历史 【语言学习类】 1.accent n. 2.accumulate vt.& vi. → n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj. → adv.精确地,准确地→ n.精确,准确 4.classify vt. 5.consult v. 6.correction n. 7.effective adj. → n.效果,作用 8.dialect n. 9.enlarge vt. 10.enrich vt. 11.excellent adj. → adv.极好地;优秀地 12.expression n. 13.grasp vt. 14.fluently adv. 15.frequently adj. → adj.频繁的 16.memorize v. 17.pronunciation n. → vt.& vi.发音 18.recognize v. 19.scan vt.& vi. 20.sentence n. 21.shortcoming n. 22.shortly adv. 23.skim vt.& vi. 24.spelling n. 25.standard n.& adj. 26.straight adj. 27.stress n. 28.term n. 29.usage n. 30.vocabulary n. 31.wonderful adj. 【答案速递】 1.accent n.口音;腔调;重音 2.accumulate vt.& vi.积累;积聚→accumulation n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj.准确的,精确的→accurately adv.精确地,准确地→accuracy n.精确,准确 4.classify vt.分类 5.consult v.咨询 6.correction n.改正 7.effective adj.有效的→effect n.效果,作用 8.dialect n.方言,土语 9.enlarge vt.扩大 21.enrich vt.丰富 22.excellent adj.极好的,优秀的→excellently adv.极好地;优秀地 23.expression n.表达;表示;表情;词语,措辞 24.grasp vt.领会;掌握 25.fluently adv.流利地 26.frequently adj.频繁地→frequent adj.频繁的 27.memorize v.记忆 28.pronunciation n.发音→pronounce vt.& vi.发音 29.recognize v.辨认出;承认;识别 30.scan vt.& vi.扫读;浏览 31.sentence n.句子 32.shortcoming n.缺点,短处 33.shortly adv.不久;简单地,扼要地 34.skim vt.& vi.跳读;略读 35.spelling n.拼写;拼法 36.standard n.& adj.标准(的) 37.straight adj.笔直的;正直的;adv.直接地;坦率地 38.stress n.重音 39.term n.术语;条目 40.usage n.使用;用法 41.vocabulary n.词汇 42.wonderful adj.精彩的;了不起的 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 【风俗习惯类】 1.Chinese traditional culture 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for 3.put forward 4.attend a ceremony 5.come into being 6.culture shock 7.date back to/date from 8.follow a custom 9.get together 10.in memory of 11.in honour of 12.pass down from generation to generation 13.have a great effect on 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development 15.have a better understanding of 16.Beijing Opera 17.spread Chinese culture 18.fit in 19.make a brief introduction to 20.experience diverse Chinese culture 【答案速递】 1.Chinese traditional culture中国传统文化 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for激发某人对……的热情 3.put forward提出 4.attend a ceremony出席仪式 5.come into being形成;产生;出现 6.culture shock文化冲击 7.date back to/date from追溯到 8.follow a custom遵循习俗 9.get together聚集 10.in memory of为了纪念 11.in honour of为了纪念;为向……表示敬意 12.pass down from generation to generation一代一代传下来 13.have a great effect on?对……有很大的影响 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development促进经济文化的发展 15.have a better understanding of对……有更好的理解 16.Beijing Opera京剧 17.spread Chinese culture传播中国文化 18.fit in融入,适应 19.make a brief introduction to对……作简单介绍 20.experience diverse Chinese culture体验多元的中国文化 【语言学习类】 1.at present 2.attach importance to 3.because of 4.come up 5.form the habit of 6.have a good command of 7.have a good knowledge of 8.insist on 9.keep/bear...in mind 10.look up 11.make progress 12.make full use of 13.pick up 14.put...to use 15.such as 【答案速递】 1.at present目前;现在 2.attach importance to重视 3.because of因为;由于 4.come up提出;走近 5.form the habit of养成……的习惯 6.have a good command of精通 7.have a good knowledge of通晓 8.insist on坚持 9.keep/bear...in mind记住…… 10.look up查阅;向上看 11.make progress取得进步 12.make full use of充分利用 13.pick up(偶然)学得;拾起,捡起;接收 14.put...to use使用…… 15.such as例如;像 ★【即学即练】 【2018江苏省徐州市第三中学高三 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)联考】 If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation. Sarah Lynn, an educational consultant and teacher, thinks English learners can improve their ability to remember and use new words by testing themselves. She adds that self-testing improves retrieval — the ability to use and remember new words. Lynn is not the only expert who recommends self-testing. A paper in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition says one benefit of testing practice is that it improves retrieval. Retrieving information once makes retrieving that information easier in the future. In addition, the paper says, when students test themselves as part of studying, they learn what they do not know. When students know what they do not understand, they can pay attention to overcoming their weaknesses. Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying. Then, they should test themselves by thinking about what they have learned. She recommends that learners make themselves write or speak something. Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it. This will allow learners to test what they know. Next time you are studying English, try to test yourself. But do not just assume that you can read something once or twice and fully understand it. Even if you highlight important points or take notes in a class, you probably do not fully understand what you learned. After all, Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years. They often compete in races to test their skills. 1.What’s the common situation faced by English learners? A. They fail to come up with new ideas. B. They are not familiar with a certain topic. C. They don’t learn as well as they think. D. They don’t know how to improve their test-taking skills. 2.Which is the advice given by Lynn about self-testing? A. Recall what’s learned with the book closed. B. Remember what’s learned by repetitive reciting. C. Question your teachers on what you doubt bravely. D. Challenge yourself to learn from videos. 3.Why are Olympic athletes mentioned? A. To show how to be successful athletes. B. To make people confident of learning. C. To warn English learners not to be proud. D. To stress the significance of practice. 【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了Sarah Lynn提出的自我测试可以提高英语学习者记忆和使用新单词的能力的观点。 1.C 【解析】考察细节理解。根据第一段中的“If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation.”可知:如果你像大多数英语学习者一样,你可能熟悉这个:你认为你理解了一个主题。然而,当要求你运用所学知识时,你却不能记住这些信息。在考试中,甚至在对话中,都有可能出现无法获得新想法的情况。 2.A 【解析】考查推理判断。根据第三段中的"Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying"和"Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it"可知, Lynn建议人们脱离阅读材料或视频材料进行自我检测,故A项正确。 3.D 【解析】考查推理判断。根据最后一段的内容,尤其是"Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years"可知,作者提及奥运选手是为了说明英语学习也需要练习,即强调(在英语学习 中)练习的重要性,故D项正确。 阅读理解的命题点有一定规律可寻,掌握命题规律,能帮助考生明确阅读时应该重点关注的内容,抓阅读的“敏感点”,提高阅读的针对性,快速、准确锁定信息区间,为准确解题圈定信息源。 1.段首、段尾处常考 无论是议论文还是说明文,一篇文章往往分成几个部分或层次进行说明和论证,每个段落一般都是一个部分或者一个层次。英美作者写文章的逻辑性非常强,文章结构都非常规范,因此每个段落的首句和尾句也经常是该段落的主旨句,也是出题的重点区域。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读B】 Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762. 24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City? A. Its business culture. B. Its small population. C. Its geographical position. D. Its favourable climate. 【答案】24. C 【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。 24. 细节理解题。根据文章首段首句Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。 2.转折处常考 文章的转折处也是体现作者观点和文章主题的地方,作者经常会通过先抑后扬的方法在转折词之后才明确提出自己的观点。转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者会偏重其中的某一方。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能作上标记以方便做题时查找。一些明显的转折词包括but, however, on the contrary,yet(句首)(句首), as a matter of fact, in fact等。 3.对比、比较处常考 另外,作者也经常把两个事物、两件事实、两种观点进行对比,从而论证自己观点的正确性。表示对比的一些标志性词语有 unlike, by contrast, In comparison, be comparedwith等。命题者常对对比的双方属性进行考查。比如文章中说“甲具有Ⅹ属性,但乙与甲不同,那乙有何属性?”答:非X属性。此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于其他考点中。 4.因果处常考 因果逻辑关系也很受高考英语命题者的青睐,因为因果关系阐述了两个事件或者事实之间的内在联系,是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方,出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会将因果倒,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止受到迷惑,表示因果关系的词有:because,?because?of,?for,?since,due?to,?thanks?to,?as?aresult?of,?as,?so,?thus,therefore, consequently,?in?consequence. as?a?result,result?from,?result?in,?cause,?lead?to,?attribute to等,有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是在逻辑上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行判断和推理。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读C】 While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the National Center for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage. Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize — which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture — on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award. Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art (CAA). His office is located at the Xiangshan campus(校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations. The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves(曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view. Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素). Wang’s works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of traditions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao Ando, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize. Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. "That is only evidence that traditions once existed," he said. "Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created, " he said. "Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are, " said Wang. The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said. 30. What made Wang’s architectural design a success? A. The mixture of different shapes. B. The balance of East and West. C. The use of popular techniques. D. The harmony of old and new. 【答案】30.D 【解析】文章主要报道了中国建筑设计师王澍在其作品中融合中国传统建筑文化,获得了建筑界的诺贝尔奖——普利策奖,这让中国建筑现在得到了国际认可。 30. 细节理解题。根据第五段最后一句:This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素).译文:由于融合了现代与传统的中国元素,这一创作

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