8A期中复习-语法篇(含例题与答案)

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8A期中复习-语法篇(含例题与答案)

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2019-05-28
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八上英语期中考试复习(一)--语法专题(U1-U4)1、形容词和副词的基本用法比较以及两者之间的相互转换(明确该知识点,便于学生在题目中形容词和副词的选择以及填空题型中词性转换的灵活运用)1. 用法比较:1)形容词的含义和句法功能:用来修饰、说明名词或不定代词,表示人或物的性质、特征和状态。通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。2)形容词在句子中的位置:1)作定语时放在名词的前面。 如:This is an interesting story. Kitty is a clever cat. ?2)作表语时放在连系动词之后。如:The flowers smell good. And they are very beautiful. 3)作宾语补足语时放在宾语之后。如:We must try our best to keep our classroom clean.? We're trying to make our school beautiful. 批注:上面的例句说明了形容词的三种用法,可以注意到形容词在三个例句中的位置是不一样的。此处需要适当补充定语、系动词以及宾语补足语的语法概念,否则学生即使知道形容词的这些位置,也不知道在题目中到底如何使用。√4)后置的情况:(经常为考点)①形容词与不定代词something,anything,nothing,everything等连用时,要放在这些词后面。如:There is something wrong with my computer? Is there anything interesting in today's newspaper?(这里需要注意的是疑问中something和anything的转换,尤其是期待对方有肯定回答的疑问句型中仍用something的知识点。)典型例题:Can you tell us _________ at the party?A. something interested B. interesting something C. anything interesting D.interesting anything key:C②与表示“长、宽、高、重、老”的词连用时形容词后置。(注意书本P31关于物体长宽重的表述以及题问方式)如: He’s 1.8 metres tall. It’s 90 feet wide. 典型例题:Peter is about 1.70 metres tall. (对划线部分提问)_________ _________ is Peter?Keys: How tall3)副词的含义和句法功能:副词是用来修饰行为动词(这里需要特别说明,因为像系动词就不是用副词修饰的)、形容词、其他副词或整个句子,有时也能修饰名词,表示时间、地点、方式、程度、动作、频度等,在句中主要用作状语。4)副词的分类:(只做了解,让学生对于哪些词属于副词做到心中有数)时 间 副 词频度副词地点/方位副词程度副词方式副词疑问/连接副词其他副词today, tomorrow,once,twicehere, there,home,quite,very, too,much wellhowtoo, also,yesterday, ago,last,now,always below,aboveenough,hard,wherenor, so,then, early, late,usuallyin,out,inside,,outside how, so,alonewhenas, on,off,once, soon, just,oftenback, up, downjust,only,almost,fast,whyeither,aftersometimesnear, nearby, togetherwhetheryes, no,seldom,a littlesuddenly,however, etc.not, neithernever-ly结尾maybe的副词perhaps,certainly5)副词在句子中的位置(此处只列出初二部分常考点)(1)作状语:① 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before等一般放在句尾,如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow. Soon the lost boy found his way back home.② 频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimes、often等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early. The workers usually have lunch at the factory.Take this medicine twice a day.√③ 方式副词:一般放在行为动词之后。(该知识点考的是比较多的,关键记忆:副词 修饰行为动词,不能使用形容词, 这里需要特别说明,因为像系动词就不是用副词修饰的)如:We should listen to the teacher as carefully as we can。 Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave.典型例题:1. The soup tastes _________ Would you like some? A. well B. bad C. badly D. nice2. I like cats best because they look _____ and move ________ . A. quiet;quiet B. quietly; quiet C.quiet;quietly D. quietly;quietly3. Tom is a ________ boy, but he did _______ in today’s exam. A. careful; careless B. careless;careful C. careful; carelessly D. careful;carefully√4. The little boy looked ______ and he looked _______ at me. A. sad; sad B. sadly;sad C. sad; sadly D. sadly;sadly√5. The food looks ______ and sells_______. A.good; well B. well;good C. good; well D. well;goodKeys:DCCCA④ 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面。(容易做考点)It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.⑤ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?⑥ 其它副词:too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(注意和 may be的比较,。maybe意思是大概,也许,在句中做状语,一般位于句首;may be 意思是可能是,大概是,在句中做谓语动词。)典型例题:1. Maybe he is a doctor. (同义句转换)He _______ ______ a doctor. 2. He______ at home. It’s holiday today.A. may be B.may C. maybe D. beKeys:1.may be 2.A(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(be in 表示“在家”,听力部分和完型填空题型有可能考涉及。)My house is far away from my school.Jim is over there.[注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.→He wrote it down.典型例题:(此题涉及到u3单词表中重要的一对反义词组)The bus is coming. Let’s get________.A.on it B. off it C. it on D. it offKeys:C2.相互转换方法:以下口诀: 一般直接加,“元e”去e加,“辅y”改i加,“le”结尾e改y。(1) 一般的形容词在结尾加ly变为副词。如:correct-correctly, final-finally, real-really, careful - carefully。(也可能考carelessly,一定要让学生有语境翻译意识,不要因为只熟悉carefully而忽略其反义词。)(2) 以元音加e结尾的单词要去e再加ly。如:true-truly;以le结尾的单词直接将e变为y。如:terrible - terribly(3) 辅音加y结尾的单词去y变i再加ly。例如:angry - angrily,happy-happily(常考词变化:luck-(un)lucky-(un)luckily, health-(un)healthy-(un)healthily,特别要注意区分这几个词的词性和词义)典型例题:1. _________ ,he was badly hurt in this traffic accident.A. Lucky B. Luckily C. Unluckily D. Unlucky2. They _______(final)finished hiking a long way and got to the top of the hill. 3. The weather is ________ (terrible)hot here in summer. Keys: C finally terribly(4) 单音节y结尾直接加ly。例如:shy-shyly√(5) 要特别注意形容词、副词同形:hard,fast,late,early等。其中很多单词加ly之后就变成其他意思的单词了。例如:hardly就变成“几乎不”的意思√(6)不是所有以ly结尾的单词都是副词,这是学生容易产生误解的。往往规律是:形容词+ly 副词名词+ly 形容词 (常见的有:friendly,lovely)[注] 书上出现的既可以为形容词也可以为副词的词有:daily,weekly.典型例题:The whole family all treated us ________, so we like them very much.A. kind B. nicely C. friendly D. lovely Keys:B2、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级大多数的形容词和副词都有三个等级:原级、比较级和最高级。1. 形容词副词比较级和最高级的规则变化 1).一般单音节词和少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词,比较级在后面加-er,最高级在后面加-est;A. 单音节词 small→smaller→smallest;short→shorter→shortest ;tall→taller→tallest;great→greater→greatesthard →harder →hardest; near→nearer→nearestB. 双音节词 ? clever→cleverer→cleverest 2).以不发音e结尾的单音节词,比较在原级后加-r,最高级在原级后加-st;large nice able cute close white large free 3).在重读闭音节(即:辅音+元音+辅音)中,先双写末尾的辅音字母,比较级加-er,最高级加-est;big→bigger→biggest hot→hotter→hottest fat→fatter→fattest4).以“辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词, 把y改为i,比较级加-er,最高级加-est;easy→easier→easiest heavy→heavier→heaviest busy→busier→busiest happy→happier→happiest5).其他双音节词和多音节词,比较级在前面加more,最高级在前面加most;beautiful→more beautiful→most beautiful;different→more different→most different easily→more easily→most easily;successfully→more successfully→most successfully批注:形容词前若加上less 和 least 则表示“较不”和“最不” 。如,important 重要 less important 较不重要 least important 最不重要。2)常用的不规则变化的形容词的比较级和最高级:原级比较级最高级goodbetterbestwell (健康的,身体好的)manymoremostmuchbad worseworstill(该词的比较级容易被忽略)little lessleastfarfarther(距离上更远)farthestfurther(更进一步):further studyfurther education furthest典型例题:I feel even _______(ill) now. Keys:worse2. 比较级的范围:一般为两者或两个部分进行比较。(1) 原级比较:肯定:as+形容词或副词原形+as… 为“像…一样”。否定:not as (so)+形容词或副词原形+as和……不一样。(注:只有在否定句中前一个as才能被so替代,肯定句中不能出现so) not as/so…as=less than不及,不如 典型例题:1. Bob skates ______ than me , but he doesn’t skate _______ my brother.A.well;as good as B. better; so well as C.better; as good as D.much well; as well as 2. I think playing computer games is not as important as learning English. (同义句转换) I think playing computer games is ______ _________ ________ learning English. Keys:B less important than (2)…than………比……(用比较级).在than的句式中有一点需要学生注意:比较级句式和最高级句式的相互转换。如: She draws better than any other student (注意用名词单数)in my class. =She draws better than the other students(注意用名词复数) in my class. =She draws (the ) best in my class. 典型例题:1. Tian’anmen Square is the largest city square in the world. (同义句转换) Tian’anmen Square is _____ ______ any other city square in the world. √2. Chongqing has more people than _______ in Jiangsu and _______ in China. A. any city; any city B. any city; any other city C. any other city; the other cities D. any other city; any cityKeys: larger than B[注]常考点:可用来专门修饰比较级的词有:a little,much,even;不能修饰比较级的有:so,too,very,quite,more等,因为这些词后加原级。典型例题:1. This year , our city is ______ than it was last year..A.much more beautiful B. much beautiful C. the most beautiful D. beautiful keys: A3. 最高级的范围:最高级用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在众多人或事物中,其中一个“最……”。(1) 最高级后面往往用of,in,among或用从句修饰表示形容词的最高级的比较范围。 典型例题:1. _______ all the students, he is the tallest one.A. Between B. In C. Among D. On 2. Do you think Sandy is ________ in our class?A. slim B. slimmer C. the slimmer D. the slimmest3. This computer is the best one ______ the shop, but it is also the most expensive _____ all the computers.A. in;of B. in;in C. of;of D. of;in Keys:CDA(2)一般用the限定最高级的范围。 但是,当形容词最高级前有序数词、物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等限定词修饰时,最高级前不加the,副词最高级前的the通常也是省略的,但是形容词的最高级前the不能省。√总结:不是所有最高级前都要加“the”,也不是所有比较级前都不能加“the”。当两者比较时,强调其中一方更。。。,我们会在比较级前+the.典型例题:1. The Yellow River is the second ________ river in our country.A. the longest B. longest C.longer D. long2. This pen is _________ of the two. A. the better B. the best C. better D. bestKeys:BB√4. 常考的固定句型有:(1) 比较级十and+比较级意为“越来越…”如:The weather is getting warmer and warmer.(2) The+比较级,the+比较级“越……就越……”如:The more trees we plant,the better it will be.The harder you try,the greater your progress is.(3) 主语+ be +one of the+ 最高级 + 名词复数+ in/of… (…是最…之一)。如: Beijing is one of the oldest cities in China.(4)“the 比较级of+两者”“两者中较……的一个”,如:Lucy is the younger of the twins.典型例题:1. The young man became one of ________ today.A. the most famous writer B. most famous C. the most famous writers D.more famous 2. When autumn comes, the weather becomes __________.A. cooler and cooler B. cool and cool C. hotter and hotter D.hot and hot3. The_____ you are, the ______ mistakes you will make.A. careful; few B. more careful;fewer C. carefuler;fewer D.most careful; fewestKeys:CAB3、比较名词的数量1. 可数名词表示“多”用more ... Than...2. 可数名词表示“少”用fewer...than...3. 不可数名词表示“多”用more...than4. 不可数名词表示“少”用less...than...[注]这里的more和less是表示数量的多少,不要和修饰比较级的more和less相混淆。典型例题: 1. Simon spends ________ time watching TV than his brother every night, so he has poor eyesight. A. less B. fewer C. more D. the most 2. Who can finish the work with ________ people and ________ money? A. fewer; fewer B. fewer; less C. less; less D. less; fewer√3. ---Why is it so impossible for Mike to pass the test? --- Because he never studies hard. And he is ________ careful student in our class. A.the most B. the least C. less D. the fewest 4. ---Did you do well in English this time? --- No, I didn’t. I got _____ points than Peter. A.less B. more C.fewer D. FewestKeys:CBBC 4、反身代词(常考的是一些固定搭配以及句型转换)1. 反身代词的含义: 是一种表示反射或强调的代词,翻译成“..自己”。它的基本含义是:通过反身代词代主语,在形式上把动作反射到施动者自己身上。因此,反身代词与它所指代的名词或代词形成互指关系,在人称、性质和数上必须保持一致。 2. 反身代词的构成: I--myself we-ourselves you(你)--- yourself you(你们)--- yourselves she---herself he---himself it----itself they-themselves 3. 反身代词的用法: 1)作宾语,当主语和宾语是同一个人时,宾语要用反身代词。(这里常考的是一些固定搭配) We enjoyed ourselves very much last night,我们昨晚玩得很开心。 Please help yourself to some fish.请你随便吃点鱼。 He teaches himself English.他自学英语。【总结】一些固定搭配,需要熟记,注意词组中的oneself是要根据语义替换成相应的反身代词的。enjoy oneself=have a good(nice,wonderful, great) time=have fun +doing sth. help oneself to... 自便..(考的较多)by oneself=alone=on one’s own 独自for oneself亲自(出现在U3reading最后,注意与by oneself区别)teach oneself自学take care of oneself=look after oneself 自己照顾自己,自立think for oneself 考虑自己hide oneself 隐藏自己 2)作表语,此时的表语指的就是主语。 I am not myself today.我今天不舒服。【补充】反身代词用于be,feel, seem, look等后做表语,表示身体或精神处于正常状态。在否定句式中,表示身体或精神出现问题。 The boy in the picture is himself.照片上的男孩就是他自己。 3)作同位语。(常考点) The thing itself is not important.这件事情本身并不重要。 经典例句:(有可能出现在填空题型中)The story itself is not interesting.这个故事本身并不有趣。典型例题:1. (本题结合反身代词和副词考点)- --Look at the children there. They are enjoying ________. ---Yes, they are playing the game_______.A.itself;happy B. itself;happily C. themselves;happy D. themselves;happily2. “Boys and girls, please help________ to some fish,”said the teacher.A.you B. yourself C.yours D.yourselves3. The story _____ (it)is not very interesting, but all the actors performed very well. Keys:DD itself5、祈使句的用法(第一次出现在初二上课本中需要引起重视)1. 祈使句的定义祈使句是用来发出命令或指示,提出要求、建议、劝告等的句子。祈使句的第二人称主语you通常不表示出来,而是以动词原形开头。如:Go and wash your hands.去把手洗一下。Be quiet. 安静。Let me try. 让我试试。2. 祈使句的否定祈使句的否定形式一般是在谓语动词前加上do not或don't(口语中),有时也可用never。若祈使句有主语,否定词don't或never要置于主语之前。Do not come in unless asked. 非请莫入。Don't you believe it.决不要相信它。Never be late again next time. 下一次千万不要再迟到了。3. 含有let的祈使句的否定let在祈使句中的否定形式常见的有以下两种:1)Don’t letDon’t let the baby fall. 不要让婴儿摔下来。2)Let…notLet’s not think about it. 咱们别再想那件事了。典型例题:1. ________ late for the meeting next time.A. Not be B.Don’t be C.Be not D. Be don’t 2. ________ and talk about it with us. A. Come here B.Coming here C.To come here D.To coming 3. Let’s _______ waste(浪费) time. We have no time left.A.don’t do B. not C. not to D. to not Keys:BAB6、情态动词“should”和 “had better”的用法。(第一次出现在初二上课本中需要引起重视)1. 情态动词的含义:表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。2. 情态动词的主要特征:1)本身有含义但词义不完整,所以不能单独做谓语,只能和动词原形一起构成谓语。2)没有人称和数的变化。3)构成否定句时,not放在这些情态动词之后;构成疑问句时,通常放在主语前面。3. should和had better的区别和联系:1)区别: 在语气上had better 更强硬一些,表示“最好做某事”,而should表示“应该”,语气较弱。2)联系:①两者都为情态动词,都可以用来提建议。②用法相同:A. 后加动词原形构成谓语动词。B. 否定加not。should not do sth =should’t so sth 不应该做某事had better not do sth 最好不要做某事4. 【补充】提建议的几种句型:(经常出现在单项选择和句型转换题型中)1)Shall I (we) do sth.?2)Let’s do sth. 3)What about=How about doing sth.?4) Why don’t you do sth.?=Why not do sth. ?5) Will / Would you please (not) do sth.? (很可能出现在单选中)典型例题:1. You had better ________ these books on the shelf. It’s full.A. put B. don’t put C. not put D.put out 2. You _______buy such old books.A. should not B. should not to C. should to not D.not should3. Would you please ________ in the room?A. not smoke B. not to smoke C. not smoking D.not smokedKeys:CAA 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) "
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八上英语期中考试复习(一)--语法专题(U1-U4)1、形容词和副词的基本用法比较以及两者之间的相互转换(明确该知识点,便于学生在题目中形容词和副词的选择以及填空题型中词性转换的灵活运用)1. 用法比较:1)形容词的含义和句法功能:用来修饰、说明名词或不定代词,表示人或物的性质、特征和状态。通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。2)形容词在句子中的位置:1)作定语时放在名词的前面。 如:This is an interesting story. Kitty is a clever cat. ?2)作表语时放在连系动词之后。如:The flowers smell good. And they are very beautiful. 3)作宾语补足语时放在宾语之后。如:We must try our best to keep our classroom clean.? We're trying to make our school beautiful. 批注:上面的例句说明了形容词的三种用法,可以注意到形容词在三个例句中的位置是不一样的。此处需要适当补充定语、系动词以及宾语补足语的语法概念,否则学生即使知道形容词的这些位置,也不知道在题目中到底如何使用。√4)后置的情况:(经常为考点)①形容词与不定代词something,anything,nothing,everything等连用时,要放在这些词后面。如:There is something wrong with my computer? Is there anything interesting in today's newspaper?(这里需要注意的是疑问中something和anything的转换,尤其是期待对方有肯定回答的疑问句型中仍用something的知识点。)典型例题:Can you tell us _________ at the party?A. something interested B. interesting something C. anything interesting D.interesting anything key:C②与表示“长、宽、高、重、老”的词连用时形容词后置。(注意书本P31关于物体长宽重的表述以及题问方式)如: He’s 1.8 metres tall. It’s 90 feet wide. 典型例题:Peter is about 1.70 metres tall. (对划线部分提问)_________ _________ is Peter?Keys: How tall3)副词的含义和句法功能:副词是用来修饰行为动词(这里需要特别说明,因为像系动词就不是用副词修饰的)、形容词、其他副词或整个句子,有时也能修饰名词,表示时间、地点、方式、程度、动作、频度等,在句中主要用作状语。4)副词的分类:(只做了解,让学生对于哪些词属于副词做到心中有数)时 间 副 词频度副词地点/方位副词程度副词方式副词疑问/连接副词其他副词today, tomorrow,once,twicehere, there,home,quite,very, too,much wellhowtoo, also,yesterday, ago,last,now,always below,aboveenough,hard,wherenor, so,then, early, late,usuallyin,out,inside,,outside how, so,alonewhenas, on,off,once, soon, just,oftenback, up, downjust,only,almost,fast,whyeither,aftersometimesnear, nearby, togetherwhetheryes, no,seldom,a littlesuddenly,however, etc.not, neithernever-ly结尾maybe的副词perhaps,certainly5)副词在句子中的位置(此处只列出初二部分常考点)(1)作状语:① 时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before等一般放在句尾,如:We will visit the Great Wall tomorrow. Soon the lost boy found his way back home.② 频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimes、often等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early. The workers usually have lunch at the factory.Take this medicine twice a day.√③ 方式副词:一般放在行为动词之后。(该知识点考的是比较多的,关键记忆:副词 修饰行为动词,不能使用形容词, 这里需要特别说明,因为像系动词就不是用副词修饰的)如:We should listen to the teacher as carefully as we can。 Suddenly he saw a light in the dark cave.典型例题:1. The soup tastes _________ Would you like some? A. well B. bad C. badly D. nice2. I like cats best because they look _____ and move ________ . A. quiet;quiet B. quietly; quiet C.quiet;quietly D. quietly;quietly3. Tom is a ________ boy, but he did _______ in today’s exam. A. careful; careless B. careless;careful C. careful; carelessly D. careful;carefully√4. The little boy looked ______ and he looked _______ at me. A. sad; sad B. sadly;sad C. sad; sadly D. sadly;sadly√5. The food looks ______ and sells_______. A.good; well B. well;good C. good; well D. well;goodKeys:DCCCA④ 程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面。(容易做考点)It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.She got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.⑤ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?Why did little Edison sit on some eggs?⑥ 其它副词:too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.Maybe your ticket is in your inside pocket.(注意和 may be的比较,。maybe意思是大概,也许,在句中做状语,一般位于句首;may be 意思是可能是,大概是,在句中做谓语动词。)典型例题:1. Maybe he is a doctor. (同义句转换)He _______ ______ a doctor. 2. He______ at home. It’s holiday today.A. may be B.may C. maybe D. beKeys:1.may be 2.A(2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment.(be in 表示“在家”,听力部分和完型填空题型有可能考涉及。)My house is far away from my school.Jim is over there.[注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.→He wrote it down.典型例题:(此题涉及到u3单词表中重要的一对反义词组)The bus is coming. Let’s get________.A.on it B. off it C. it on D. it offKeys:C2.相互转换方法:以下口诀: 一般直接加,“元e”去e加,“辅y”改i加,“le”结尾e改y。(1) 一般的形容词在结尾加ly变为副词。如:correct-correctly, final-finally, real-really, careful - carefully。(也可能考carelessly,一定要让学生有语境翻译意识,不要因为只熟悉carefully而忽略其反义词。)(2) 以元音加e结尾的单词要去e再加ly。如:true-truly;以le结尾的单词直接将e变为y。如:terrible - terribly(3) 辅音加y结尾的单词去y变i再加ly。例如:angry - angrily,happy-happily(常考词变化:luck-(un)lucky-(un)luckily, health-(un)healthy-(un)healthily,特别要注意区分这几个词的词性和词义)典型例题:1. _________ ,he was badly hurt in this traffic accident.A. Lucky B. Luckily C. Unluckily D. Unlucky2. They _______(final)finished hiking a long way and got to the top of the hill. 3. The weather is ________ (terrible)hot here in summer. Keys: C finally terribly(4) 单音节y结尾直接加ly。例如:shy-shyly√(5) 要特别注意形容词、副词同形:hard,fast,late,early等。其中很多单词加ly之后就变成其他意思的单词了。例如:hardly就变成“几乎不”的意思√(6)不是所有以ly结尾的单词都是副词,这是学生容易产生误解的。往往规律是:形容词+ly 副词名词+ly 形容词 (常见的有:friendly,lovely)[注] 书上出现的既可以为形容词也可以为副词的词有:daily,weekly.典型例题:The whole family all treated us ________, so we like them very much.A. kind B. nicely C. friendly D. lovely Keys:B2、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级大多数的形容词和副词都有三个等级:原级、比较级和最高级。1. 形容词副词比较级和最高级的规则变化 1).一般单音节词和少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词,比较级在后面加-er,最高级在后面加-est;A. 单音节词 small→smaller→smallest;short→shorter→shortest ;tall→taller→tallest;great→greater→greatesthard →harder →hardest; near→nearer→nearestB. 双音节词 ? clever→cleverer→cleverest 2).以不发音e结尾的单音节词,比较在原级后加-r,最高级在原级后加-st;large nice able cute close white large free 3).在重读闭音节(即:辅音+元音+辅音)中,先双写末尾的辅音字母,比较级加-er,最高级加-est;big→bigger→biggest hot→hotter→hottest fat→fatter→fattest4).以“辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词, 把y改为i,比较级加-er,最高级加-est;easy→easier→easiest heavy→heavier→heaviest busy→busier→busiest happy→happier→happiest5).其他双音节词和多音节词,比较级在前面加more,最高级在前面加most;beautiful→more beautiful→most beautiful;different→more different→most different easily→more easily→most easily;successfully→more successfully→most successfully批注:形容词前若加上less 和 least 则表示“较不”和“最不” 。如,important 重要 less important 较不重要 least important 最不重要。2)常用的不规则变化的形容词的比较级和最高级:原级比较级最高级goodbetterbestwell (健康的,身体好的)manymoremostmuchbad worseworstill(该词的比较级容易被忽略)little lessleastfarfarther(距离上更远)farthestfurther(更进一步):further studyfurther education furthest典型例题:I feel even _______(ill) now. Keys:worse2. 比较级的范围:一般为两者或两个部分进行比较。(1) 原级比较:肯定:as+形容词或副词原形+as… 为“像…一样”。否定:not as (so)+形容词或副词原形+as和……不一样。(注:只有在否定句中前一个as才能被so替代,肯定句中不能出现so) not as/so…as=less than不及,不如 典型例题:1. Bob skates ______ than me , but he doesn’t skate _______ my brother.A.well;as good as B. better; so well as C.better; as good as D.much well; as well as 2. I think playing computer games is not as important as learning English. (同义句转换) I think playing computer games is ______ _________ ________ learning English. Keys:B less important than (2)…than………比……(用比较级).在than的句式中有一点需要学生注意:比较级句式和最高级句式的相互转换。如: She draws better than any other student (注意用名词单数)in my class. =She draws better than the other students(注意用名词复数) in my class. =She draws (the ) best in my class. 典型例题:1. Tian’anmen Square is the largest city square in the world. (同义句转换) Tian’anmen Square is _____ ______ any other city square in the world. √2. Chongqing has more people than _______ in Jiangsu and _______ in China. A. any city; any city B. any city; any other city C. any other city; the other cities D. any other city; any cityKeys: larger than B[注]常考点:可用来专门修饰比较级的词有:a little,much,even;不能修饰比较级的有:so,too,very,quite,more等,因为这些词后加原级。典型例题:1. This year , our city is ______ than it was last year..A.much more beautiful B. much beautiful C. the most beautiful D. beautiful keys: A3. 最高级的范围:最高级用于三者或三者以上的人或事物之间的比较,表示在众多人或事物中,其中一个“最……”。(1) 最高级后面往往用of,in,among或用从句修饰表示形容词的最高级的比较范围。 典型例题:1. _______ all the students, he is the tallest one.A. Between B. In C. Among D. On 2. Do you think Sandy is ________ in our class?A. slim B. slimmer C. the slimmer D. the slimmest3. This computer is the best one ______ the shop, but it is also the most expensive _____ all the computers.A. in;of B. in;in C. of;of D. of;in Keys:CDA(2)一般用the限定最高级的范围。 但是,当形容词最高级前有序数词、物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等限定词修饰时,最高级前不加the,副词最高级前的the通常也是省略的,但是形容词的最高级前the不能省。√总结:不是所有最高级前都要加“the”,也不是所有比较级前都不能加“the”。当两者比较时,强调其中一方更。。。,我们会在比较级前+the.典型例题:1. The Yellow River is the second ________ river in our country.A. the longest B. longest C.longer D. long2. This pen is _________ of the two. A. the better B. the best C. better D. bestKeys:BB√4. 常考的固定句型有:(1) 比较级十and+比较级意为“越来越…”如:The weather is getting warmer and warmer.(2) The+比较级,the+比较级“越……就越……”如:The more trees we plant,the better it will be.The harder you try,the greater your progress is.(3) 主语+ be +one of the+ 最高级 + 名词复数+ in/of… (…是最…之一)。如: Beijing is one of the oldest cities in China.(4)“the 比较级of+两者”“两者中较……的一个”,如:Lucy is the younger of the twins.典型例题:1. The young man became one of ________ today.A. the most famous writer B. most famous C. the most famous writers D.more famous 2. When autumn comes, the weather becomes __________.A. cooler and cooler B. cool and cool C. hotter and hotter D.hot and hot3. The_____ you are, the ______ mistakes you will make.A. careful; few B. more careful;fewer C. carefuler;fewer D.most careful; fewestKeys:CAB3、比较名词的数量1. 可数名词表示“多”用more ... Than...2. 可数名词表示“少”用fewer...than...3. 不可数名词表示“多”用more...than4. 不可数名词表示“少”用less...than...[注]这里的more和less是表示数量的多少,不要和修饰比较级的more和less相混淆。典型例题: 1. Simon spends ________ time watching TV than his brother every night, so he has poor eyesight. A. less B. fewer C. more D. the most 2. Who can finish the work with ________ people and ________ money? A. fewer; fewer B. fewer; less C. less; less D. less; fewer√3. ---Why is it so impossible for Mike to pass the test? --- Because he never studies hard. And he is ________ careful student in our class. A.the most B. the least C. less D. the fewest 4. ---Did you do well in English this time? --- No, I didn’t. I got _____ points than Peter. A.less B. more C.fewer D. FewestKeys:CBBC 4、反身代词(常考的是一些固定搭配以及句型转换)1. 反身代词的含义: 是一种表示反射或强调的代词,翻译成“..自己”。它的基本含义是:通过反身代词代主语,在形式上把动作反射到施动者自己身上。因此,反身代词与它所指代的名词或代词形成互指关系,在人称、性质和数上必须保持一致。 2. 反身代词的构成: I--myself we-ourselves you(你)--- yourself you(你们)--- yourselves she---herself he---himself it----itself they-themselves 3. 反身代词的用法: 1)作宾语,当主语和宾语是同一个人时,宾语要用反身代词。(这里常考的是一些固定搭配) We enjoyed ourselves very much last night,我们昨晚玩得很开心。 Please help yourself to some fish.请你随便吃点鱼。 He teaches himself English.他自学英语。【总结】一些固定搭配,需要熟记,注意词组中的oneself是要根据语义替换成相应的反身代词的。enjoy oneself=have a good(nice,wonderful, great) time=have fun +doing sth. help oneself to... 自便..(考的较多)by oneself=alone=on one’s own 独自for oneself亲自(出现在U3reading最后,注意与by oneself区别)teach oneself自学take care of oneself=look after oneself 自己照顾自己,自立think for oneself 考虑自己hide oneself 隐藏自己 2)作表语,此时的表语指的就是主语。 I am not myself today.我今天不舒服。【补充】反身代词用于be,feel, seem, look等后做表语,表示身体或精神处于正常状态。在否定句式中,表示身体或精神出现问题。 The boy in the picture is himself.照片上的男孩就是他自己。 3)作同位语。(常考点) The thing itself is not important.这件事情本身并不重要。 经典例句:(有可能出现在填空题型中)The story itself is not interesting.这个故事本身并不有趣。典型例题:1. (本题结合反身代词和副词考点)- --Look at the children there. They are enjoying ________. ---Yes, they are playing the game_______.A.itself;happy B. itself;happily C. themselves;happy D. themselves;happily2. “Boys and girls, please help________ to some fish,”said the teacher.A.you B. yourself C.yours D.yourselves3. The story _____ (it)is not very interesting, but all the actors performed very well. Keys:DD itself5、祈使句的用法(第一次出现在初二上课本中需要引起重视)1. 祈使句的定义祈使句是用来发出命令或指示,提出要求、建议、劝告等的句子。祈使句的第二人称主语you通常不表示出来,而是以动词原形开头。如:Go and wash your hands.去把手洗一下。Be quiet. 安静。Let me try. 让我试试。2. 祈使句的否定祈使句的否定形式一般是在谓语动词前加上do not或don't(口语中),有时也可用never。若祈使句有主语,否定词don't或never要置于主语之前。Do not come in unless asked. 非请莫入。Don't you believe it.决不要相信它。Never be late again next time. 下一次千万不要再迟到了。3. 含有let的祈使句的否定let在祈使句中的否定形式常见的有以下两种:1)Don’t letDon’t let the baby fall. 不要让婴儿摔下来。2)Let…notLet’s not think about it. 咱们别再想那件事了。典型例题:1. ________ late for the meeting next time.A. Not be B.Don’t be C.Be not D. Be don’t 2. ________ and talk about it with us. A. Come here B.Coming here C.To come here D.To coming 3. Let’s _______ waste(浪费) time. We have no time left.A.don’t do B. not C. not to D. to not Keys:BAB6、情态动词“should”和 “had better”的用法。(第一次出现在初二上课本中需要引起重视)1. 情态动词的含义:表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。2. 情态动词的主要特征:1)本身有含义但词义不完整,所以不能单独做谓语,只能和动词原形一起构成谓语。2)没有人称和数的变化。3)构成否定句时,not放在这些情态动词之后;构成疑问句时,通常放在主语前面。3. should和had better的区别和联系:1)区别: 在语气上had better 更强硬一些,表示“最好做某事”,而should表示“应该”,语气较弱。2)联系:①两者都为情态动词,都可以用来提建议。②用法相同:A. 后加动词原形构成谓语动词。B. 否定加not。should not do sth =should’t so sth 不应该做某事had better not do sth 最好不要做某事4. 【补充】提建议的几种句型:(经常出现在单项选择和句型转换题型中)1)Shall I (we) do sth.?2)Let’s do sth. 3)What about=How about doing sth.?4) Why don’t you do sth.?=Why not do sth. ?5) Will / Would you please (not) do sth.? (很可能出现在单选中)典型例题:1. You had better ________ these books on the shelf. It’s full.A. put B. don’t put C. not put D.put out 2. You _______buy such old books.A. should not B. should not to C. should to not D.not should3. Would you please ________ in the room?A. not smoke B. not to smoke C. not smoking D.not smokedKeys:CAA 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) "
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